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FANTASTIC COLOR PHOTOS! 





NUMBER 4 

$150 ^ March 



INTERVIEW: 

NICK TATE 

of "SPACE: 1999" 

THE OUTER LIMITS 

• Behind-the-Scenes Story 

• Rare Photos 

• Complete Episode Guide 

NEW COLUMN BY 

DAVID GERROLD 

FREDRIC BROWN'S 

"ARENA" 

Illustrated Short Story 

& Photos from TREK version 

LATEST NEWS: 

Books, Records, Puzzles, 
Films, Letters. . . & Robots 



SPECIAL PERSONAL INTERVIEW 



RICHARD ANDERS 

OSCAR GOLDMAN of 

THE SIX MILLION DOLLAR M 
and 
THE BIONIC WOMAN 




i8k 



i 



:/i 



. J 










LOOKS ARENT EVERYTHING 

However, the classic TV science fiction series, The Outer Limits did 

make good use of the visual shock produced by odd-looking aliens. 

Pictured here is an inhabitant of the planet Chromo. You can read 

the full story of the show as well as a complete episode guide, 

starting on page 54. 




Business and Editorial offices: 
STARLOG MAGAZINE 
O'Quinn Studios, Inc. 
180 Madison Avenue, Suite 1503 
New York, NY 10016 

Publishers: 

Kerry O'Quinn, Norman Jacobs 

Editor in Chief: David Houston 

Managing Editor: James M.Elrod 

Asst. Editor: Howard Zimmerman 

Art Director: Linda Bound 

Production Assistant: 
David Hutchison 

Contributors: Jim Burns, Gary 
Gerani, David Gerrold, Isobel 
Silden, William Schreiner 
Ed Tobias, John Waldrop 

Display Advertising: 
Contact the Publishers 



FROM THE BRIDGE 

LOG ENTRIES 

Latest News From The Worlds Of Science Fiction. 

INVADERS FROM MARS 

Re-release of '50s Classic.Spearheads 

New Film Enterprise 



COMMUNICATIONS 

Letters From Our Readers 

QUESTIONNAIRE 



SCIENCE FICTION MOVIES IN 3-D 

New "Fantastic Invasion ..." Coming 

3-D Movie Guide __^ 



INTERVIEW: RICHARD ANDERSON 

Oscar Goldman of "The Six Million Dollar Man" 
and "The Bionic Woman" 



TO 



STATE OF THE ART 

A New Column of Opinion by Author David Gerrold 12 



.14 
J 5 



_24 
J2.9 



.16 



About the Coyer Skilled illustrator -Jack -Thurston 
has brought the electronic adventure of. two of. 
television's most popular shows into sharp focus. 
Jaime Somers and Steve Austin are benevolently 
watched over by Oscar Goldman, the one. character 
who appears regularly on both series. Richard 
Anderson, who portrays Oscar, is the subject of 
this issue's feature interview (page 16). Some of . 
you may recognize Jack Thurston's name from the 
sensational "Star Trek" cover of our first issue. His 
precise style and dramatic lighting have made 
him a favorite of our readers. You might also 
recognize Jack's work from the dozens, of movie 
posters and cover jackets he has done in the last 
few years. Posters (or The Pink Panther Strikes 
Again. Sparkle, The- Doberman Gang, Elvira 
Madigan, and Battle of the Bulge are just some 
of Jack's many credits. 



STARLOG is published eight rirri.es a . year bv O'Quinn 
Studios. Inc.. 180 Madison Avenue,. Suite 1603. New Yurie. ' 
NY. 10016. This is'ssue'Nurnber 4. March 197? (Volume 
Two), copyright K 1977 by O'Quinn Studios, Inc. Subscrip- 
tion rates- S9:98 tor eight- issues; foreign- S15!00 lin'.US. 
fundsl. STARLOG accents rip responsibility lor unsolicited 
photographs or manuscripts, but it free lance submittals are 
accompanied by a -sell-addressed, stamped envelope, they, 
will be. considered, and it necessary, returned. Reprint or 
reproduction in part or in whole without written permission 
of the publishers is strictly forbidden. 



"ARENA" 

The Complete Original Story by Fredric Brown 34 

Photos from "Star Trek's" Adaptation 42 



INTERVIEW: NICK TATE 

Captain Alan Carter of "Space: 1999' 



THE OUTER LIMITS 

Behind-the-Scenes Story 
Complete Episode Guide _ 



STAR TEASERS 

Puzzles _^_^_^_ 



CLASSIFIED INFORMATION 
VISIONS 

Robots: Fact and Fancy 



_48 



_54 
31 



.32 

.64 



,66 




Dear Reader, 

This issue contains some important firsts for STARLOG: 

David Gerrold— author of Star Trek's legendary "Tribbles," his own The Man 
Who Folded Himself, and other novels and collections of short stories— joins 
STARLOG (page 12) as a regular contributor and our resident commentator on 
science fiction in the media. 

When he wrote "The Trouble With Tribbles," Gerrold was the youngest 
member of the Writers' Guild; now he's one of the most vital voices in science 
fiction. He's a complex thinker, a devotee of movies and TV, as much a fan as 
any of us, and something of a nut. I think many of you will become addicted to 
his columns. 

STARLOG has invited Gerrold to appear here on his own terms. We might not 
always agree with what he has to say. Likewise, you might not always agree 
with him. If you would like to write him a serious letter with disagreements, 
questions, or ideas, write c/o STARLOG and include a self-addressed stamped 
envelope for possible reply. 

One more thing: David Gerrold lives in Los Angeles just out the Ventura 
Freeway from the major TV and motion picture studios. He is actively involved 
with the people and projects of Hollywood and promises, through his column, to 
keep us in touch with new SF activities and behind-the-scenes details. 

Our other important firsts: a two-part article and a work of fiction. 

The big article on 3-D movies in general and Fantastic Invasion of Planet 
Earth in particular, beginning on page 24, introduces so vast a topic that we 
have chosen to present, in our next issue, a separate, but related illustrated 
history of 3-D film techniques (did you know that the first 3-D motion picture . 
was made in 1889 and that in 1922 a major New York theater was converted so 
that it could show A Man From Mars in its full three-dimensions?). 

We've had a great many requests for fiction, so we've decided that we will, 
from time to time, present significant works that have influenced movies and/or 
TV. And we have an absorbing drama to kick things off: Fredric Brown's 
"Arena"— a short story with so fundamental a theme that it has served directly 
or indirectly as a basis for many other stories, films, and TV shows— including 
an episode of Star Trek and one from Outer Limitsl Our new policy regarding 
fiction also allows us to commission thrilling works of art— such as the painting 
by Boris Vallejo that introduces "Arena" on page 34. 

And, of course, there's more: two in-person interviews— one with Richard 
Anderson, who plays Oscar Goldman, and one with Nick Tate, who patterns his 
portrayal of Alan Carter after himself— and an indispensible article and full 
filmography of The Outer Limits on page 56. 

This, I immodestly submit, is a dynamite issue of STARLOG! 



David Houston/Editor in Chief 



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LATEST NEWS FROM THE WORLDS OF SCIENCE FICTION 





FLY THE ENTERPRISE 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is 
accepting applications for at least fifteen Space Shuttle pilot 
and fifteen Mission Specialist Candidates who will be chosen 
by December, 1977. Applicants need at least a bachelor's 
degree in engineering, physical science, mathematics, or 
biological sciences. Pilot applicants must have at least 1,000 
hours of flight time. This is NASA's first call for new 
astronaut applications since 1967. For further information, 
write Astronaut (pilot) Candidate Program, or Astronaut 
(mission specialist) Candidate Program, NASA Johnson 
Space Center, Houston, TX 77058. 



Photo: NASA 



TCP: COMPUTER-LINK TO THE SF WORLD 



For those people interested in accurate, up to the minute 
information on the entire field of science fiction in general 
and Star Trek in particular, "The Pacific Communicator" is 
one of the best sources we have found (we use it ourselves). 



In its own words, " TPC is a fan-produced, non-profit science 
fiction newsletter." Editor Michael Okuda publishes this 
news sheet monthly at a cost of S2.00 for ten issues (when he 
says non-profit, he means it!). It is printed on a computer 
print-out sheet to speed production and to hold down costs. 
If interested, write to: "The Pacific Communicator," c/o 
Michael H. Okuda, 3069 Hiehie St., Honolulu, HI 96822. 




© 1976 Marvel Comics 



£ 1976 STAFTREACH Productions 



SF RESURGENCE IN COMICS 



There have been two magazines of note in the last few 
months to contribute to the growth and maturity of science 
fiction in the comics. Ironically, neither of them is in four- 
color. The first book, published in October, is STAR*REACH 
#6, from Mike Friedrich's STAR*REACH Productions. The 



cover bears a fabulous portrait of Michael Moorcock "s 
"Elric" by cover artist supreme, Jeff Jones. "Elric" is 
featured in a new twenty-page story by Eric Kimball and 
illustrated by Bob Gould, a Barry Smith disciple. Also 
featured in this issue is a brand-new poem by Ray Bradbury, 
"Why Viking Lander/Mars?," with an illustration by SF 
artist Alex Nino. As a total package, issue #6 places S*R 
squarely in the forefront of illustrated science fiction 
magazines. It is in black-and-white and can be obtained from 
STAR*REACH Productions for $1.25 at P.O. Box 385, 
Hayward, CA 94543. The other step forward was taken by 
Marvel Comics with the release of the giant-size, special issue 
of "Unknown Worlds of Science Fiction." This black-and- 
white magazine was released in November as a $1.25 one- 
shot, to test the waters for future production. It contains 
eight illustrated stories, most of them new, some of them 
reprinted from past issues of UWOSF. One of these is an 
adaptation of Fredric Brown's "Arena," skillfully done by 
Gerry Conway, John Buscema, and Dick Giordano. In 
addition, there is an interview with Theodore Sturgeon and a 
column by authors Don and Maggie Thomson who are 
striving to be SF fandon"s clearest and most perceptive 
voices. The stories cover the field and present a wide variety 
of different approaches and styles— enough to satisfy even 
the most voracious of SF appetites. 




Charles Laughton retreats from the 
"manimals" in Island of Lost Souls. 



RETURN OF THE "MANIMALS" 

American International is in the process of re-making H.G. 
Wells' Gothic horror tale. The Island of Dr. Moreau. Richard 
Basehart has been cast in the role of the "Sayer of the Law," 
which was played by Bela Lugosi in the original. Other 
members of the cast include Burt Lancaster, Michael York. 
Ian Bannen, and Barbara Carrera. The film was scheduled to 
start shooting by January first for release in the summer of 
'77. The original, classic adaptation of the Wells story was 
filmed by Paramount in 1933 under the title of The Island of 
Lost Souls. Charles Laughton gave a chilling portrayal of the 
evil Dr. Moreau. Also new from American International are 
People That Time Forgot— a sequel to their recent Land That 
Time Forgot, and Empire of the Ants, based on yet another 
H.G. Wells story. People is scheduled to start shooting 
sometime in 1977; Ants began production in November with 
a projected release date sometime in the summer of 1977. 



HUGO AWARD WINNERS 

Each year the Hugo awards are presented at the World 
Science Fiction Convention. Named after Hugo Gernsback 

the electronic and publishing genius who first coined the 
term "science fiction"), the award represents the ultimate 
achievement for people in the field of science fiction. The 
1976 awards were presented at the 34th World SF 
Convention in Kansas City this past September. Here are the 
dinners and the division in which they won their awards: 

Sest Novel— "The Forever War" by Joe Haldeman; 

Novelette— "Borderland of Sol" by Larry Niven; Dramatic 



Presentation— "A Boy and His Dog"; Professional 
Artist— Frank Kelly Freas (this was Kelly's tenth Hugo): Fan 
Writer— Dick Geis; Novella— "Home is the Hangman" by 
Roger Zelazny; Short Story— "Catch That Zeppelin" by Fritz 
Leiber; Professional Editor— Ben Bova; Fan Artist— Tim 
Kirk; Fanzine— "Locus"; Gandalf Award (presented by Lin 
Carter for life's work in fantasy)— L Sprague de Camp; John 
W. Campbell Award (for the best new writer)— Tom Reamy. 
The 1977 Hugos will be presented at the Sun Con, September 
2-5 at the Fontainbleau Hotel, Miami Beach, Florida (see 
page 13 for address). The Guest-of-Honor will be Jack 
Williamson, and the Toastmaster, Robert Silverberg. 




GERROLD'S ODYSSEY A MAJOR DEPARTURE 



Coming in February from Signet Books (New American 
Library) is the first novel from David Gerrold in over four 
years. A Moonstone Odyssey concerns the colonization of a 
barren planet and the efforts by the colonists to maintain a 
completely artificial ecology, including a "man-made" ocean, 
artificial eclipses, and a nighttime sun to break up the 
extremely long days and nights due to the slow rotation of 
the planet. The humans on the planet, in order to survive, 
have also had to induce some remarkable genetic changes in 
themselves. Gerrold is very excited about the prospects for 
the book, which represents a dramatic departure from his 
Star Trek oriented material of the recent past. 




BUBBLE GUM CARDS! 

The Topps Chewing Gum Company has done it again! For 
years they had the monopoly on cards of the professional 
sports stars. More recently they have struck while the iron is 
hot, turning pop culture events into trading cards. The 
Planet of the Apes (movies and TV), Marvel Superheroes, 
Happy Days, Good Times, and, earlier on, The Outer Limits 
all have been turned into bubble gum trading cards. Now, ten 
years after the event, Topps has contracted with Paramount 
to produce Star Trek bubble gum cards. This is an unusual 
series in two respects: firstly, they have the full run of the 
TV series from which to choose (as opposed to making the 
cards before a show ends its run), and secondly, because the 
series has 88 cards and 22 stickers— many more than any of 
their previous TV series cards. The cards are composed of an 
action shot on the front and episode title and a short 
synopsis on the back.(We"re confident that they will be 
accurate, as STARLOG contributor Gary Gerani wrote 
them). The stickers are basically full-face portraits of all the 
important characters. There are seven different Spock 
stickers. Each package contains five cards and a sticker and, 
oh yes, one piece of bubble gum: all for one thin dime. 



STAR WARS PAPERBACK SCOOPS MOVIE 

Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Sky walker, by 
George Lucas has been published by Ballantine. Lucas is the 
producer of the 87,000,000 Twentieth Century Fox film which 
is due to be released sometime late in 1977. The story 
concerns a galaxy-wide civil war, in which Luke Skywalker 
becomes involved via a holographic distress message from 




the beautiful Senator Leia, who is being held captive by the 
evil Dark Lord, Darth Vader. Luke's crackerjack skills as a 
pilot thrust him headlong into confrontations with 
murderous space pirates, hostile alien beings, and finally, he 
finds himself involved in a spectacular space battle with the 
planet-sized enemy battle station known as the Death Star. 
Still to come from Lucas are the concluding volume of Stars 
Wars, and The Making of Star Wars, a behind-the-scenes 
look at how the picture was made. 



BILLION DAYS. . . NEW FROM BANTAM 

From Bantam comes this month's "Frederik Pohl 
Selection," A Billion Days of Earth, by Doris Piserchia (210 
pages, SI. 50) about the strange inhabitants of the Earth of 
one million years hence. Humans have evolved into Gods, 
rats have become men, and cats, bees, and birds have been 
genetically combined into "zizzies." And everyone fights 
everyone else. Into this chaotic state of affairs, comes Sheen, 
a mercury-like presence, who is called the Supreme One. 
Under Sheen, the denisons of this future earth attack their 
Gods in a struggle for possession of the planet. Ms. Piserchia 
has also written the science fiction novel Star Rider. 



LETTERS TO STAR TREK 



Letters to Star Trek (Ballantine, 256 pages, $1.95) is 
exactly what the title says it is. Edited by Gene 
Roddenberry's secretary Susan Sackett, Letters is a survey 
of some of the many thousands of letters received and 
processed by the Star Trek staff and, since the show's 
network demise, the individual people concerned with the 
show. Along with the letters are comments and, in some 
cases, responses from Roddenberry himself. For example, in 
answer to one letter gently taking the show to task for some 
of its less impressive episodes, Roddenberry states: "It is a 

I Continued on page 22) 



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STATE 7IP 





Wade Williams' next pro- 
ject will be the release 
of Rocketship X-M (right). 
Hopefully, through efforts 
of those like Williams, we 
will once more be able to 
watch heretofore lost SF 
classics. However, films 
such as Man from Planet X 
(above), of which Williams 
has one of the few remain- 
ing prints, may already be 
too far gone to reclaim. 



10 




New 

Film Company 

to 

Re-release 

SF Classics 



By JAMES M.ELROD 

In the event that 
you have missed some of the films 
made during science fiction *s great 
boom in the Fifties, don't give up 
hope, A gentleman named Wade 
Williams, from Kansas City, Mis- 
souri, has been actively collecting 
and buying up old negatives of those 
classics with the idea of re-releasing 
them to theaters around the country. 

The thirty-three year old Williams 
has been interested in science fiction 
since the age of eight, when he first 
saw Rocketship X-M. He went back 
to see it again— thirty times. It also 
got him started collecting SF mem- 
orabilia. After a period of trying to 
get started as an actor in Hollywood, 
he returned to his native Kansas City 
and eventually went into film produc- 
tion. His first attempt was a science 
fiction effort, which was shelved in- 
definitely due to lack of budget. 
Another film, currently in test re- 
lease, is an adaptation of a story 
about the Manson "family" called 
Helter Skelter Murders. His real 
dream though, is the salvaging, 
repair, and re- issue of those motion 
pictures he has loved since childhood. 

The first of his re-releases is In- 
vaders from Mars, made in 1953. It 
was the last film f*ver directed by 
William Cameron .enzies (Menzies 
designed the sets for Gone With The 
Wind and directed Things to Come). 
The art direction and special effects 
were handled by Boris Leven (The 
Andromeda Strain), who, to quote 
Box Office, "used stark outdoor set- 
tings, dead branches, bubbles of the 
Martian underground tunnels, and 
the simple look of the flying saucer to 
create an air of unreality." 

Williams told STARLOG of the 
problems involved in reworking such 
a film. The search for Invaders oc- 
cupied a year of going through 



records, writing letters, waiting for 
replies, and chasing up blind alleys. 
Twentieth Century Fox had lost the 
rights (and all records of ever having 
owned the picture), which had 
reverted to the producer. The pro- 
ducer had subsequently gone bank- 
rupt, and Invaders had been sold at 
auction to a collector in London, 
where Williams finally found and 
purchased it. Then he had to go 
through the painstaking procedure of 
restoring the colors and having new 
negatives made, since the original 
had deteriorated almost beyond use. 

Williams hopes that the recent 
resurgence of the science fiction field 
will increase the public's awareness 
of the very real possibility of per- 
manently losing some of these classic 
films. Williams owns one each of the 
few remaining prints of the 1951 
films Flight to Mars and Man from 
Planet X. Otherwise, these pictures 
are virtually non-existent. 

If the test release of Invaders from 
Mars is successful, and the film 
makes it in general circulation, 
Williams' next project is to be the 
release of Rocketship X-M, the first 
film ever released to seriously deal 
with the problems and possibilities of 
space exploration. Made in 1949, 
X-M was written, directed, and pro- 
duced by Kurt Neumann. The cam- 
eraman was Academy Award winner 
Karl Strauss; the editing chores were 
handled by another Oscar winner, 
Harry Gerstad; and the score was 
done by Ferde Grofe, better known 
for his "Grand Canyon Suite." Star- 
ring Lloyd Bridges, Osa Massen, and 
Hugh Brian. X-M predates 
Destination Moon by a month and 
actually grossed more at the box of- 
fice, in spite of its having been large- 
ly forgotten since. 

The restoration of Rocketship X-M 
was an entirely different challenge 
from Invaders. The film was shot in 
black and white, which immediately 
leads most theaters to shy away from 
renting it. To overcome this problem, 
Williams has shot a new intro and 
finish tag in color, inserted color 
stock footage during the earth-bound 
sequences, and gone to the expense of 
a process called Auramation. 

The process is a two-color additive 
system, in which, for instance, flesh 
tones can be laid over the faces and 
the backgrounds tinted with a dif- 
ferent color. Obviously, this tech- 
nique can be used only sparingly and 
in situations where some sort of un- 
natural lighting could reasonably be 
expected. This coincidence of set- 
tings evidently occurs often enough 
in X-M (in rocket interiors, for exam- 
ple) that, along with the other color 



sections of the movie, an impression 
is given of watching a color film. 

Williams is not terribly interested 
in producing original science fiction 
films. The main reason is his feeling 
that there is a general lack of good, 
adaptable story material available, 
and he would have to be totally com- 
mitted to the story before' he could 
think about making a film of it. Good 



Below: Here is the ominous, gold- 
hued and tentacled leader of the 
Martian invaders. Even more horri- 
fying is the new ending of the film. 
It is actually the original ending 
that was rejected as being too scary. 




story telling is the ingredient that at- 
tracted Williams to SF pictures of 
the fifties. In spite of a great number 
of poor quality films, the best of the 
genre are those which relied primari- 
ly on the story and not solely on spec- 
tacular special effects. Williams feels 
that many recent efforts, including 
2001, have paid too little attention to. 
the story telling. 

Interestingly enough, Invaders 
was produced to take advantage of 
the Saturday afternoon, kiddie- 
matinee market. However, because 
the production involved highly pro- 
fessional and talented people, their 
creative commitment turned the 
film into a serious classic. 

Having seen far too little of these 
early science fiction greats, and har- 
boring fond, warm memories for 
these great pictures, we sincerely 
hope that Williams succeeds in mak- 
ing a go of it. One of these days the 
neglect which these old prints have 
received is likely to be regretted by 
more than a few. But until that time, 
we will have to rely on dedicated 
dreamers and collectors such as 
Wade Williams to go to the effort 
and endure the frustrations 
necessary to find and restore to 
showing quality the movies of the 
Golden Age of science fiction. -j^ 




Above: Wade Williams strikes a 
classic 1950's pose that goes well 
with his current project: the resur- 
rection of previously unavailable 
1950s SF films. It took him more 
than a year to find the negative of 
his first release. Invaders . . . 



,11 



jnwotfim m 



A column of opinion by David Gerrold 




The most useless 
job in the world is that of the critic. 

That is a prejudiced statement. I 
admit it, I'm prejudiced; I hate 
critics. There is a logical reason for 
me to hate critics, but despite the 
logic behind it, I still hate critics 
because of good, old-fashioned, 
downright petty prejudice. 

I don't mean reviewers. Reviewers 
are okay— I tolerate them; they per- 
form a valuable service. But, critics I 
hate. Critics are like crab lice. If 
writing a book is an experience as 
joyous as being in love, then dealing 
with critics (self-appointed and other- 
wise; there is a plethora of the 
former) is like finding out the next 
morning that you have caught a 
social disease. 

And now, as the saying goes, 
(yesterday, I couldn't even spell 
critik), and now, I are one. 

The things we do for money. 

A reviewer's job (ideally) is to 
answer three questions: What was 
the author trying to do? How well did 
he do it? Was it worth doing in the 
first place? The reviewer helps you 
decide how you are going to spend 
your entertainment dollars.You learn 
to pick pretty quickly which review- 
ers' tastes match your own, and you 
learn just as quickly which ones to 
disregard. 

But critics— that's another whole 



species, and not necessarily an in- 
telligent one either— critics seem to 
function as opinion-makers for those 
who want to be "trendy" but don't 
have the time to form opinions of 
their own. Critics sit in judgment— 
they make arbitrary decisions of 
what is good and what is bad. I say 
arbitrary because their choice of 
criteria is not based on the standards 
of the author who set the creative 
challenge for himself; a critic 
measures you with his yardstick and 
then faults you for not living up to 
his standards. To support his judg- 
ments, he performs long, sometimes 
obscure, often heavy-handed rituals 
of analysis. (I told you I was pre- 
judiced; I warned you.) The critic 
judges things on their political 
relevance, their psycho-sexual im- 
plications, and their "trendiness." 
Pretentiousness is often glorified. 
Making a profit is, if not a major sin, 
something at least vaguely un- 
savory. To call a work "commercial" 
is the ultimate insult. Ah yes. 

This is STATE OF THE ART, a 
column of opinion by David Gerrold. 
Critic. 

Boldly he marches into the wilder- 
ness of words, filled with high ideals 
and the determination to set a better 
example— determined to be more 
than just another fickle, bitter voice 
of doom, despair and destruction. (I 




figure I should be able to do at least 
three upbeat columns before I start 
sinking into the morass of despon- 
dency. Haven't you ever noticed how 
most critics are convinced that they 
are doing little better than throwing 
their pearls of wisdom before barely 
literate swine?) 

Science fiction is a literature of 
dreams. It is a literature of ideas. It 
is a literature of escape. It is an 
amusement park that happens in 
your mind. It is for fun. 

The motion picture medium is 
uniquely suited for science fiction. 
(I'm not saying it always, or even 
often, handles science fiction well; I 
am saying only that the medium can 
be one of SF's best expressions.) Film 
is manipulative reality. The film- 
maker creates illusions of alternate 
realities, and you believe in them.' 
You believe in the most basic illusion 
of all— that the picture you are 
watching is really moving when it's 
only a series of stills projected past 
your eye at twenty-four frames per 
second. You believe those images. 
You believe those actors are really 
the characters they are portraying. 
You believe that they are saying 
those words as a result of their own 
internal motivations. (When was the 
last time you paid to see a movie 
because of who wrote it?) You believe 
in the events portrayed. You want to 
believe in them; that's why you pay 
three (or more) dollars to sit in a large 
dark room for two hours to watch 
these pictures pretend to move. You 
want a reality created for you. 
Escape. Entertainment. Dreams. 

I've been having a love affair with 
science fiction since I was nine years 
old and discovered the books of 
Robert A. Heinlein in the Van Nuys 
public library— by learning how to 
use the card catalogue, I managed to 
discover that there was another 
whole section of Heinlein books in the 
adult part of the library. And next to 
all those Heinleins were some 
Asimovs and Sturgeons and Clarkes, 
and well, one thing led to another. . . 

It was always my dream to be in- 
volved in science fiction in some 



12 



way— and when I saw films like War 
of the Worlds and Forbidden Planet, 
I knew I wanted it to be in film. 

They weren't writing some of the 
books I wanted to read, so I had to 
write them myself. They weren't 
making some of the movies I wanted 
to see, so I will have to make them 
myself. (I'm working on it, don't rush 
me.) And I have this fear that one 
day someone is going to come up to 
me and say, "Well, that's all very 
good, David— but what are you going 
to do when you grow up? When are 
you going to stop playing and start- 
being serious?" 

You see, I 'm having a lot of fun in 
science fiction— a shameful amount 
of fun in film. Orson Welles once said 
that a movie studio is the best set of 
electric trains any kid ever had. Well, 
so is a science fiction idea and a 
typewriter a great set of trains. And, 
if you combine the two— well, that's 
ecstasy on a scale surpassing almost 
anything else except, perhaps, being 
in love. 

What I'm getting at is that I've 
been having so much fun in science 
fiction, and in television and movies, 
that I'm almost embarrassed to be 
getting paid for it as well. There are 
moments when it feels almost sinful 
to be enjoying my work so intensely. 
The word is satisfaction. Not to men- 
tion pride. 

Pride happens when you know 
you've done a good job and you share 
it with others and they agree with 
you that it's a good job. It's a reaf- 
firmation of your identity when they 
do that. And it's great! 

There is nothing like a good, old- 
fashioned round of applause to cure 
an inferiority complex. 

Which is why I hate critics— they 
rarely know how to applaud a job 
well done. And almost everybody is a 
critic. Especially on the movies. 

Most of them don't know their hind 
ends from a hole in the ground. 

If that seems harsh, it's meant to 
be. I am equally harsh of some of my 
so-called colleagues— the ones who 
call themselves writers but who 
would have trouble writing their way 
out of a pay toilet. I have very little 
patience for incompetence— whether 
it is behind the typewriter, in front of 
the camera, or sitting in judgment, 
ineptitude is. . . (I'll be mild here) in- 
efficient. 

It's too easy for a critic to be 
wrong. It's too easy to misunder- 
stand. If he gets his facts wrong (and 
I am thinking of a specific critic now) 
then his conclusions are bound to be 
equally wrong; and it's too easy to 
get the facts wrong. All you have to 
do is to be too lazy to do your 
research to find out the truth of the 



matter— or even worse, too pre- 
judiced to care. If you have your 
mind made up already, the facts will 
only confuse you. Most of the cri- 
ticism I have seen— especially that of 
amateurs and the self-appointed— 
has been an exercise in misjudgment. 
(One of the few pleasurable exceptions 
is Harlan Ellison, who can be quite 
literate in his rational moments.) 

Whatever other critics may write, I 
do not believe the job of a critic is to 
be judgmental. A critic is not an 
ultimate arbiter— he is, if he can do 
his job right, an analyst. His job is to 
bring his (allegedly) superior insight 
to the task of understanding, to help 
the more casual reader/viewer better 
understand what he is reading or see- 
ing. A critic's job is not to be a taste- 
maker, but a guide, an educator. 

Taste, it is said, is the result of a 
thousand distastes— it is the result of 
experience. The critic should be ex- 
perienced, it should be his job not to 
tell the audience what he thinks, but 
what they should look for so they can 
think for themselves. The critic's job 
is to make good audiences into better 
ones by giving them the knowledge 
they need to better appreciate the 
escapes, the dreams, and the enter- 
tainment they are experiencing. 

If I must be a critic, then that's the 
kind of a critic I would like to be. 
Then I wouldn't have to be embar- 
rassed about saying, "Now I are 
one." 

Toward removing that em- 
barrassment, I feel my first column 
should take a small step. So here's a 
tid-bit concerning the film 2001 for 
you to dwell upon. It isn't explained 
in the film, but when you know this 
fact your whole perspective on it may 
be altered. 

You've probably seen the movie. 
Remember when the ape throws the 
bone into the air and it becomes a 
spaceship? Remember the scene 
shows several orbiting craft, all with 
flags painted on them? 

Fact: The first craft is not a 
spaceship, and neither are any of 
those other orbiting pieces of hard- 
ware. They're bombs. All of the 
space vehicles seen before Space 
Station 5 appears have flags on 
them, and all of them are orbiting 
bombs. (Ask Kubrick. He'll confirm 
it.) 

Now think about this fact— not 
just what it means about the intent 
of the picture, but also what it im- 
plies about the state of humanity in 
the Twenty-first century. Whether 
you like that vision or not, you now 
have the fact that lets you see ac- 
curately. 

There . . . I've already made you a 
little bit better as an audience. * 



FUTURE 
CONVENTIONS 



Here is the latest information on 
upcoming conventions. Details for most 
conventions are often subject to last 
minute changes; for final details check 
with the person or organization listed. 

ALBUQUERQUE STAR TREK. 

COMIC, & SCIENCE FICTION FILM CON 

Albuquerque, New Mexico Jan. 21-23, 1977 

Albuquerque Star Trek, 
Comic & Science Fiction Film Con 
2606 General Marshal NE 
Albuquerque, NM 871 12 

PUGET SOUND STAR TREKKERS CON II 
Seattle, Washington Jan. 29-30, 1 977 

Puget Sound Star Trekkers Con II 
6207 71th Avenue, NW 
Seattle, Washington 98107 

SPACE ... THE FINAL FRONTIER NO. 3 
Oakland. CA Feb. 11-13, 1977 

Space Con 3 
P.O. Box 24022 
Oakland, CA 94623 

B0SK0NE 14 Feb. 18-20. 1977 

Boston, Massachusetts 

NESFA 

Box G, MIT Branch P.O. 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 

LUNAC0N April 8-10. 1977 

Brooklyn, New York 

Walter Cole 

1171 East 8th Street 

Brooklyn, New York 

WESTERC0N July or August, 1 977 

Vancouver, British Columbia 

Western Con 30 
Box 48701 Stn. Bentall 
Vancouver, B.C. 
Canada 

STAR TREK PHILADELPHIA July 15-18, 1977 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Tri-Star Industries 
88 New Dorp Plaza 
Staten Island, New York 10306 

SUN CON Sept. 2-5, 1977 

(35th World Science Fiction Convention) 

Orlando, Florida 

Worldcon 35 

Box 3427 

Cherry Hill, New Jersey 08002 

13 



VIRGIN KUDOS 

... I have never written a letter praising a 
magazine although I have read many in 
my 40 years. I did not know what to ex- 
pect when I picked up the first 
STARLOG issue. The format is stylish, 
the pictorials attractive, and the reading 
material the most informative, mature 
and interesting 1 have read in a long time. 

Elsie McKay 

West Seneca. N.Y. 
... I have never written a "fan" letter to 
any magazine, but I freaked out over your 
first two issues. I would enjoy seeing ar- 
ticles on life in the future . . . color pic- 
tures of Space: 1999 (Especially nude 
photos of Ziena Merton) . . . 

John W. Chance 

Los Angeles, CA 
Just two of the many people we have lured 
into writing their first fan letter. Thanks, 
folks. As to the nude photos, STARLOG 
is not quite ready for that kind of "first. " 
We're sure Ziena is flattered. 

ALPHA'S REVOLVING DOOR 

... I was wondering why Prentiss Han- 
cock (Paul Morrow), Barry Morse (Prof. 
Bergman) and Clifton Jones (David Kano) 
of Space: 1999 are not in the second 
season. 

Martin Collins 

Elyria, OH 
... I just don't see how so many readers 
can complain about every little detail. 
They're hounding your staff like a pack of 
wolves. To me, mistakes or no mistakes, 
STARLOG is number one. What hap- 
pened to Victor Bergman (Barry Morse) 
of Space: 1999? What a team of science of- 
ficers he and Maya would make . . And 
where did First Officer Tonv Anholt come 
from? 

Jeffrey Linehom 

Wilmington, Mass. 
. . . Your special section on Space: 1999 
was the greatest thing in a magazine I 
have ever read. My hat is off to you guys. 
But what happened to Barry Morse? Did 
he pull out? I think some of the other 
members of the cast also pulled out; is 
this true? 

Glen Yamashita 

Honolulu, Hawaii 
We've received a flood of letters question- 
ing the cast changes (both departures and 
arrivals) on Space: 1999, Year 2. Here are 
the facts: Firstly, when Fred Freiberger 
took over the directorial reins for the se- 
cond season, he decided to get right into 
the action and not go into an explanation 
of the character changes right away. Tony 
(Verdeschi) Anholt' s mysterious ap- 
pearance on Alpha is easily explainable 
and really no mystery at all- he was on 
Alpha all the time. The reason for his 
becoming a major figure is that Freiberger 
wanted a strong second-in-command 
figure to form a relationship with Maya to 
facilitate character and plot 

14 



developments. Later this season, Tony's 
entire background from earth to Alpha 
will be explained and examined in an 
episode entitled "The Bringers of 
Wonder. "Barry Morse left the show to do 
TV on the Canadian Broadcasting Cor- 
poration. It seems that he had passed up 
some good acting opportunities to stay 
with 1999 for the second season, but 
wanted a better contract. He and Gerry 
Anderson didn't see eye-to-eye on the 
details, so Barry bowed out. Prentiss Han- 
cock was originally a fine soap opera actor 
on British television before his role on 
1999. He had been receiving many offers 
to appear in British movies and TV shows 
and when no second year production deci- 
sion on 1999 had been made, Prentiss 
decided not to wait. He opted for some of 
those British offers before the decision 
was made to go ahead with year two of 
Space -4s for Clifton Jones ' departure, the 
only information we could get is that he 
too has opted for British TV and the op- 
portunity for a variety of different roles. 



AN OFFER WE CAN'T REFUSE 

... As far as I know, none of Tennessee 
receives any of the Space: 1999 shows. I 
would like to know if our local stations 
could telecast the 1999 shows and, if so, 
how we would go about contacting the 
necessary persons to do it. If you could do 
this, I'm sure all of Tennessee would 
really be grateful. 

Daniel Angel 

ClarkvilleTN 
Try tkis: First, organize all of your friends 
toward a single, likely station. One of the 
top independent stations in your area 
would be best. Then write them, call them, 
send petitions. Also, let the show's 
distributor know what you're doing so 
that they can support your efforts from 
their end. The distributor is I.T.C., 555 
Madison Ave., New York, NY 10022. 
Good luck to you, Daniel and to all the 
other thirsty people around the country 
who have written us about their desire to 
see this series locally. 



DENTAL PROBLEMS 

... As much as I enjoy STARLOG, I do 
have one urgent complaint. For God's 
sake, it's not SCI-FI! It's SF! Every time 
I read the word "SCI-FI" my teeth gnash 
involuntarily. Why should I make my 
dentist any more affluent than he already 
is? Why should you invite the wrath of 
potential readers in the SF community? It 
just isn't.. . logical. 

AmyTedford 

Salem, Mass. 
To our surprise, we have received several 
indignant letters from readers who are 
personally insulted by the term "Sci-Fi" 
Everyone on our staff has been an en- 
thusiastic fan of science fiction for eons, 
and no one here finds the slang abbrevia- 



tion offensive. Does the term "TV" offend 
people in that field? Does the term "con" 
offend you when used instead of conven- 
tion? Every field develops a glossary of 
shorthand words, and unless a term is in- 
tentionally aimed at deriding (as, for in- 
stance, "soap opera" used to be), there is 
nothing less dignified about the slang ver- 
sion. Sorry, we just don't understand your 
sensitivity to the usage. 

THE ANSWER TO A TREKKIE's 
PRAYERS 

... Is anyone in the Star Trek industry 
writing books on the making of the 
"Enterprise" drawings, the making of the 
manual's "Articles of Federation"? 

Richard Musgrave 

Chicago, 111. 
... I am looking for information about 
anything connected with science fiction. I 
would like to know about fan clubs, 
magazines, etc. I would also like you to 
print more articles about the Star Trek 
conventions. 

Robert J. Walko 

La Gragge, Ga. 
. . . Could you please tell me how to get a 
Star Trek uniform or a pattern for one? 

Wayne Davidson 

Blacksbury, Va. 
This is just a small sample of the letters 
we get for information about things Trek. 
The 150 volunteer workers around the 
country who devote time to answering 
questions and supplying information for 
Star Trek fans is a unique and wonderful 
group. They are much better equipped 
than we are to respond to readers on 
topics specifically related to ST. Please 
address your inquiries to— 

STAR TREK WELCOMMITTEE 

c/o Shirley Maiewski 

481 Main Street 

Hatfield MA 01038 



FIRST CONTACT 

. . . When I read your letters page and saw 
that your editors are from Texas I was 
greatly interested. You called the towns 
"watering holes," and I know the feeling. 
I live in a county with a total population 
of about 1,000 people. I am the only per- 
son in the county interested in SF. I will 
be interested in info on clubs. 

Jabby Lowe 

Tilden, TX 
We have the wonderful feeling that 
STARLOG is reaching out and touching 
people all around the country . . . perhaps 
around the world. We thoroughly unders- 
tand that feeling of isolation that comes 
from an internal passion that one feels 
nobody else in town shares. Hopefully, so- 
meone else in Tilden will read this and 
make contact with you. Among our 
editorial staff, quite by accident, we in- 
clude people from Austin, Tyler, Abilene, 
and Lubbock. 



READER REQUESTS 

. . . Being a Star Trek fan and writing for a 
hobby, I have come up with an idea for a 
(ST) movie plot. Now could you help me 
and give me Mr. Roddenberry's address 
so I can send my idea to him? 

Bill Lansdale 

Middletown, Ohio 
... I would like to know if you could give 
me Michael York's and Jenny Agutter's 
addresses so that I may write to them to 
compliment them on their acting in 
"Logan's Run"? 

Doug Harris 

(No Address) 

... I would like to know where I could get 
some publicity stills and film clips for 
such movies as "Logan's Run" and "The 
Day the Earth Stood Still". I am also in- 
terested in where I could buy a copy of 
"Dark Star". 

Eric Essman 

Clovis, CA 
STARLOG receives numerous requests 
each week for photos, posters, diagrams, 
personal addresses, etc., etc. Unfortunate- 
ly for all these eager fans, we are up to our 
ears working on the magazine,and we have 
neither the time nor the facilities to 
answer these requests. What we CAN do 
is direct you to the proper people. In our 
next issue (H5) we will present a Complete 
Science Fiction Address Guide. Please be 
patient. 




THE "IMCC" QUESTION 

... In Issue #2 the question was asked by 
Byron Cannon as to just what the NCC 
stood for on the USS Enterprise, 
NCC-1701. You stated it was the Naval 
Construction contract number which was 
a slight error. The answer can be found in 
the Lincoln Enterprise's 24-page booklet 
"Fifty Most Asked Questions." Ac- 
cording to Matt Jeffries, who designed 
the original Enterprise plans, these let- 
ters were pulled out of the blue. Sometime 
around 1928, there was an international 
agreement and each country came up with 
a letter to designate itself. The United 
States become "N". The "C" also came in- 
to use at that time and stood for "com- 
mercial." These two letters followed by a 
serial number were used to designate ear- 
(Continued on page 31) 



STARLOG 
QUESTIONNAIRE 



Each issue we ask our readers to join us in the planning of future 
STARLOGs. Please fill out the Questionnaire below (or write 
answers on a separate piece of paper) and send it to us today. 

With your ideas, your likes and dislikes, your suggestions for up- 
coming issues, STARLOG will continue to grow into the kind of 
science fiction publication you really love. 

The volume of mail we receive makes it impossible for us to reply to 
letters individually, but all Questionnaire answers are considered 
seriously, and letters of general interest may be selected to appear in 
future Communications. 



Let us hear from you . . . 



Mail to: STARLOG Magazine 

180 Madison Avenue, Suite 1503 

New York, N.Y. 10016 H . .. 

(1) My age is. 

(2) I (like) (dislike) this month's STARLOG cover because 



(3) I first discovered STARLOG magazine through: 

Newsstand display 

Saw a friend's copy 

Other . . . explain 



(4) My three favorite magazines are 



(5) My favorite article in this issue of STARLOG is 



(6) My least favorite feature in this STARLOG is 



(7) In future issues of STARLOG, I would enjoy seeing the following: 

TV Shows 

Movies 



Interviews 
Subjects 



(8) I am interested in buying science fiction: 

Books 

Records 

Games 

Other items 



(9) My family consists of: 

Brothers, aged 

Sisters, aged 



(10) Among my hobbies and pleasures I enjoy: 

Audio Equipment Records 

Bikes Cars Clothes 



. Tapes 



Photography Equipment 



.Art 



Other 



15 



STARLOG INTERVIEW 



Richard Anderson 

(Oscar Goldman) 

The Six Million Dollar Man, The Bionic Woman 




Richard Anderson's role as Oscar 
Goldman has him leading a "schiz- 
oid existence," but he loves it. 
He likes to relax by doing some 
beach riding on his ten-speed. 

16 



By ISOBEL SILDEIM 

Steve Austin and 
Jaime Som.ers have bionic limbs, 
but it's Oscar Goldman who 
sometimes thinks he's leading a 
bionic life— sprinting as he does be- 
tween the two hit ABC-TV series. 
And he's loving every minute of it. 

Oscar Goldman, whose real name is 
Richard Anderson, says joyously: 
"It's a schizoid existence, being in 
two places almost at the same time, 
and this is the only instance where it 
has worked." He refers to Leo G. Car- 
roll who played the same part in The 
Man From U.N.C.L.E. and for a short 
time duplicated the feat in The Girl 
From U.N.C.L.E. which series ceased 
being avuncular after a short season. 

The setting is the Beverly Hills 
Hotel's posh Polo Lounge, where 
Anderson's favorite table is set in the 
outdoor gardens, under the shade of 
a huge tree. "Isn't it beautiful?" he 
surveys the flowering Gazanias, 
azaleas, pansies and ferns. He is ap- 
preciative of his surroundings, ap- 
parently oblivious to the whispers 
surrounding him: "It's Oscar 
Goldman!" "It's the man from The 
Six Million Dollar Manl" "It's the 
man from The Bionic Womanl" 

It's a Saturday lunchtime, the only 
free day Anderson has had in weeks; 
the only one he can foresee for weeks 
to come. The Beautiful People are as 
fan-like as anyone else, and as admir- 
ing. He handles it in stride. He likes 
it. 



"Recognition is great," he assents. 
"I can't go to the grocery store as 
easily as before, but I can still move 
around, because I'm really very low 
key." 

That he is, but at a trim 175 
pounds on his 6'3" person, he is not 
one who is easily overlooked. He does 
not look like an actor: this day his 
white shirt is mostly concealed by a 
white sweater, checked jacket and 
tan corduroy slacks. One spots trim 
bare ankles above his casual shoes. 
He is en route to the beach to ride his 
bike for a few miles, after the inter- 
view is completed. 

"I'm so glad to be here," he con- 
tinues his reverie. "I am so fortunate, 
doing what I enjoy. . . acting. . . the 
camaraderie on the set ... every- 
thing!" 

A jaded observer of the Hollywood 
scene might consider this a 
"hype"— the actor saying what he 
thinks the interviewer wants to hear. 
Not so in Anderson's case: the man 
seems genuine, deep-thinking. 

How did he get to be Oscar 
Goldman? 

"The phone rang and my agent 
said 'There's a show called The Six 
Million Dollar Man.' And I said 'That 
sounds good!' " 

Undoubtedly, he thought he would 
either be or make six million dollars 
from this show, and he now allows— 
four years later— that there is a 
potential of close to six million 
dollars to be made from both series. 
At the time, one gathers that was not 
really his main concern. As Anderson 



Photo: © ABC 




Above: Richard says that there are Below: No, Richard is not about to hit 

two sides to Oscar Goldman. On The himself in the mouth with a bionic tennis 

Six Million Dollar Man, he plays it ball. Actually, he is a good enough 

tight and straight to complement Lee player to participate in the Hollywood 

Majors' portrayal of the strong hero. Celebrity tournament held in Monaco. 





puts it: "An actor has to act, has to 
work. I had always said I wanted to 
do every TV episode I could. I 
wanted everyone to see me on every 
show. There's no such thing as over- 
exposure. They don't see all of you of 
every show— the audience, that is. 
They only peak at you. At the same 
time, the producers and network ex- 
ecutives, who are also peaking, 
figure: 'He's working, he must be 
good. Let's get him for our show.' " 

His philosophy has paid off. He 
can't even estimate how many TV ap- 
pearances he has made. Before 
Anderson became Goldman he had 
been a Hollywood staple, learning his 
craft in countless movies. 

He was born in Long Branch, N.J., 
to a wealthy family who lost their 
money during the 1929 stock market 




debacle. He grew up in Los Angeles, 
did his part to help save the world for 
democracy in World War II, and 
studied acting at the then-famous 
and illustrious Actors Lab in 
Hollywood. In 1947, Anderson began 
his acting career in summer stock in 
Santa Barbara and Laguna. He was 
signed to an MGM six-year contract 
and appeared in 26 films during that 
time. 

His official biography states that 
he gained his releases from MGM in 
order to appear in the powerful film, 
Paths of Glory, which was filmed in 
Germany. Other noteworthy credits 
include Fox's The Long Hot Summer 
and Compulsion. 

"Then I went to Broadway to do a 
play for the Theatre Guild, The 
Highest Tree." 



It was not a high success, one 
gathers, so Anderson came west 
again and began his assault on televi- 
sion. . 

"And the picture came out just 
right," he concluded that portion of 
the conversation. "You understand 
what I mean?" 

Yes. What he visualized for his 
career has come about. To be sure, 
Anderson never saw himself co- 
starring in two hit series dealing with 
science fiction, because he wasn't an 
afficionado of the genre. 

"I wasn't particularly interested in 
it, and I didn't know too much about 
it. I prefer to refer to it as 'science 
probability,' and I know far more 
about it now," he laughs. 

Dedicated viewers of both shows 
are doubtless aware that there are 



Using Oscar as a major link between 
the two shows has enabled the writ- 
ers to continue the relationship be- 
tween Jaime and Steve. 



different nuances in the approaches 
Anderson takes to his scenes with 
Lindsay (Jaime Somers) Wagner 
and Lee (Steve Austin) Majors. He is 
delighted that we have noticed. 

"You are seeing two sides of Oscar 
and Richard," he explains. "Yes, 
there is a difference in playing the 
two shows. Jaime allows me to add 
some colors. She is a lady," he adds 
with fervent appreciation. "The 
Bionic Woman show is funnier, 
looser, because Lindsay has a relaxed 
humorous quality. The Six Million 
Dollar Man is more of a straight 
adventure show and Lee is a very 

19 




Above: Yes, it is Richard Anderson as 
Engineer Olonzo Quinn from the all- 
time great, 1956 SF classic. Forbid- 
den Planet. Right: Quinn and Cmdr. 
John J. Adams (Leslie IMielson) exam- 
ine the ruined klystron modulator. 
Unfortunately, Anderson's relation- 
ship with science fiction ended with 
this film. It wasn't until a certain 
astronaut suffered a re-entry accident 
that Richard moved back into sci-fi. 



David Hartman [Good Morning America!) 
and Richard have been good friends 
for a long time. Even with their busy 
careers, they still find time to get 
together for a quiet, poolside chat. 

Richard is thoroughly professional and 
all business when it comes to work. But 
his subtle sense of humor and wonderful 
smile belie his inherent seriousness. 

Photographs by WILLIAM SC HREINER 



strong, independent man. So that's 
the way his character comes across." 
What about this implied romance 
between Oscar and Jaime? 

"Oh, it's definitely there," he con- 
firms. But he won't suggest that the 
characters might be fooling around. 
He prefers to compare it to the situa- 
tion between Matt Dillon and Miss 
Kitty. No one ever knew what they 
were up to when they weren't watch- 
ing. He does believe that Oscar could 
be in love with Jaime. "He couldn't 
help himself," Anderson reasons. 

Visitors are still unwelcome on the 
sets of both series, for the same 
reasons: the pressures of time and 
risk of distracting the actors. As a 
thorough professional, Anderson ap- 
preciates the opportunity to concen- 
trate entirely on his character. 

"Movies can sometimes be an art," 
he will concede, "but they are always 
a business." Autographs get signed 
on your own time, not the company's. 
Had he not decided to be an actor, 
what would he have done? 

"Gone into government service," 
he replies promptly, and is more than 
somewhat surprised when he is 
reminded that that's exactly what he 
is doing for a living on the series. 

It is not easy to capture the real 
Richard Anderson on paper. He is a 
supremely intense individual. He 
thinks out his sentences as carefully 
as an attorney would prepare a brief, 
from points A to B to C a logical con- 
clusion. And yet there is humor, as 
low-key as the man himself. His smile 
flashes easily. There are just enough 
laugh lines around his eyes to give his 
face character. He's a man you would 
trust to take charge in any situation. 
Also, you would not care to be his op- 
ponent in the singles tennis games 
that he relishes— if you cared about 
winning, that is. He is a very good 
tennis player and will probably join 
other Hollywood celebrities when 




they go to Monaco next year for then- 
annual tournament. 

"It would be nice to see Grace 
again," he muses. "We were under 
contract at MGM together. " 

Grace? Oh, the Princess, formerly 
little Grace Kelly from Philly. Of 
course. And he's not name dropping 
either. He's known them all. He was 
around during the movies' Golden 
Era. He freely admits that the late 
Gary Cooper was his idol. 

"I learned so much from him. I 
asked him once what was the most 
important thing for an actor to have. 
'Good feet,' he told me," Anderson 
laughs in loving appreciation and 
reminiscing. "Another time, I asked 
how he could act with the camera 
right up close, literally in his face. 
The audience would be there, right 
there. 'Don't let them know you know 
it,' "he shares. 

It is apparent that Anderson 
literally loves every moment of his 
life. "Success is great," he repeats 
more than once, cherishing and 
relishing in it. 

Despite' the frenetic work schedule 
he has assumed, there is still time for 
tennis, bike riding, and dining in 
good restaurants. He is now single, 
but does not rule out the possibility 
of marriage, although he does make it 
seem rather pontifical as he pro- 
nounces, "I am for the institution of 
marriage. ' ' When asked how he liked 
living in that institution, he replies 
with a gutsy laugh and comments no 
more. And so he now lives alone in a 
hillside home, with a housekeeper 
coming in a few times a week to tidy. 

"I swim. I'm building a Jacuzzi at 
my house. I eat good food; I stay 
healthy and I like the sun." He 
travels a great deal, too, for fun and 
for pleasure. Upcoming is a week in 
Vancouver for some syndicated 
television show tapings. Then 
another week in Hawaii doing com- 



mercials for a banking institution. 
ABC sent him to Australia for a 
three-week promotional tour last 
year and he enjoyed that, particular- 
ly tennis-playing on grass as they do 
there. 

How long does he project his two 
series will last? 

"I don't have a crystal ball, but I 
feel both shows are turning into in- 
stitutions. I don't talk with either 
Lee or Lindsay on these levels, but I 
do believe you don't run away from a 
running horse," is his analogy of the 
situation. "Let's just say things have 
fallen into place. I've been broke: 
listen, I came back here from New 
York in the winter of 1959 with my 
car and forty-six cents in my pocket. 
I spent the money on some shrimp 
and regarded the situation as a 
challenge. Being broke isn't so horri- 
ble. You can always make money." 

"But I'm grateful for all this. Suc- 
cess is easy to handle, believe me," 
again the broad, grateful smile. He's 
wearing stardom gracefully, too. 

During the photo-taking for this 
story. Richard was greeted poolside 
by a sunburned gentleman in blue 
swim trunks. It was his longtime 
friend, David Hartman, star of 
ABC's Good Morning, America! The 
greeting between the two men was a 
delight: 

"I always said we'd make it, didn't 
I?" Richard reminded David. 

"Oh God, yes, and it's so great," 
David replied with his joyous smile. 
' ' Somebody interviewed me la week 
and said 'Isn't it rotten to have to get 
up so early?' And I told them 'No, 
I'm earning a living doing what I 
most enjoy." 

"Isn't that what I just said?" 
Richard turned to me. 

It was the appropriate exit line, 
leaving the two old chums together 
appreciating each other and their 
good fortune. -fa 




r - 



c* 



(fl 



CI 



n 




(Continued from page 8) 

pleasure to receive a letter from someone who . . . puts the 
show into its proper perspective. I am also happy to find 
that some people do understand that Star Trek was, within 
the limits ... of mass audience television, an attempt to 
express something of my own philosophy. 

"The problem faced by the television writer is that the 
networks have an almost pathological fear of any comment 
on any meaningful subject. . . . Its [television's) sole purpose 



is to sell beer, spray deodorant, soap, and so on. They are not 
interested in attracting people who think too deeply (since 
they are not likely to be influenced by the commercials) and 
neither do they want their mass audience distracted by too 
much thinking in the intervals between commercial 
messages." 

Letters to Star Trek represents perhaps one of the most 
interesting glimpses into the Star Trek phenomenon to date, 
and as a bonus, offers some quite enjoyable, literate reading. 



CAPRICORN ONE: SPACE DRAMA TWIST 

ITC begins production in January on a new film called 
Capricorn One. Written and directed by Peter Hyams, the 
cast list is filled with big-name stars from film and TV: Elliot 
Gould, Brenda Vaccaro, Telly Savalas, Hal Holbrook, 
Candice Bergen, O.J. Simpson, Sam Waterson, and James 
Brolin. Capricorn One is the official name given to the first 



manned Martian landing mission. At the last moment before 
takeoff, the Project Director realizes that there is a fatal flaw 
in the mission that will bring disaster and disgrace to NASA 
and the United States. To forestall this occurance, he 
kidnaps the entire mission crew and sends their ship off 
without them! To continue the charade, a Mars landing is 
staged in a western American desert and "beamed back" as 
the real thing! 



CLASSICS AND FUTURE CLASSICS 
FROM BERKLEY 



Berkley Books' new titles through January are primarily 
reprints and re-issues of popular novels by some of the 
important names in science fiction. On the shelves by 
January will be two reprints of A.E. van Vogt's, The Players 
of Null-A and The World ofNull-A, with another edition of 
Slan due to be released in March. Star Bridge by Jams Gunn 
and Jack Williamson is next, followed by Clarion, edited by 
Kate Wilhelm, and Ursula K. Le Guin's The Word for World 
is Forest, about an idyllic world suddenly engulfed in 
terror. Also due for publication is. Cemetery World, by 
Clifford D. Simak. Of particular interest is the first American 
printing of Solaris by Stanislaw Lem, which served as the 
basis for the recently released Soviet film that won the 
Grand Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival. 



BITS AND PIECES 

Universal Pictures is set to do a big-budget remake of the 
minor classic The Incredible Shrinking Man . . . the Harry 
Saltzman film of The Micronauts (speaking of shrinking) 
started filming in December . . . New World Pictures is 
wrapping up work on Deathsport 2020 starring David 
Carradine . . . Carradine is also starring in the The Serpent's 
Egg, now in production, by Dino {King Kong) 
DeLaurentiis . . . Now that filming is well under way, the 
complete cast of The Deep (by the man who wrote Jaws) has 
been announced: Robert Shaw, Nick Nolte, Jacqueline Bisset, 
Lou Gosset, Eli Wallach, Anne Jackson, Robert Tessier, Dick 
Anthony Williams, Earl Williams . . . Zarkoff—Half Man, 



Half Beast just finished shooting in the Philippines: release is 
set for March 15 . . . There's a new one from Japan: Godzilla 
Versus (are you ready for this?) The Bionic Monster, it has 
just been acquired by Cinema Shares Corp. for immediate 
distribution . . . Marilyn Chambers is filming her first SF 
flick, a thriller called Rabid, shooting in Montreal. She plays a 
girl transformed by plastic surgery!?) • • - Though ABC 
insists that the Bionic Boy episode was not a pilot, the 
excellent reaction of both the audience and the critics may 
eventually lead them to change their minds. Singled out for 
special mention was Vincent Van Patten. Federico Fellini will 
be making his first science fiction film for Penthouse, and 
the Penthouse-Viva "Pet-of-the-Year," Laura Doone will have 
a starring role. * 



NEXT ISSUE: 

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Old science-fiction 3-D movies are being re-released: 

The Creature From the Black Lagoon and It Came 

From Outer Space have been making the rounds lately 

in an eye-straining red-green process. And there is a 

promise of new and better films and processes: Andy 

Warhol's Frankenstein is currently doubling with a 

3-D film never before released. Fantastic Invasion of 

Planet Earth and these two are in the best 3-D system 

ever made available! There's even a possibility that 

some films made in 3-D but never released that way 

will now be seen as originally intended. While there 

have been a variety of problems with 3-D — technical, 

psychological, financial — we believe that the process 

can contribute greatly to the thrill of science-fiction— 

where the undreamed-of made real, a sense of being 

transported to other times and places, and the wonder 

of advanced science and technology. . . all are 
experienced through a process that possesses those 
magical properties itself. It is surely time for a rebirth 

of... 

SCIENCE-FICTION MOVIES 

IN 3-D 




Richard Carlson learns that the "BEMs" who "came from outer space" 
have assumed the likenesses of several local people in order to 
search out materials to repair their disabled, stranded spacecraft. 

24 



By DAVID HUTCHISON 

1 think the com- 
bination of 3-D and science fiction is 
dynamite! " says Allan Shackleton, of 
Monarch Releasing Co. He is refer- 
ring to his release of Fantastic Inva- 
sion of Planet Earth, in the "Space- 
vision" 3-D process. 

A science fiction film in color is 
always news; learning that Fantastic 
Invasion was also shot in 3-D made 
me sit up and raise my eyebrows; but 
learning that the film was made over 
ten years ago and is only now finding 
a market, left me in open-mouthed 
wonder. 

Originally titled The Bubble, the 
film was written and directed by 
Arch Oboler, past master of radio 
horror drama and creator of the 1952 
film Bwana Devil which started the 
3-D craze of the early fifties. Mr. 
Shackleton credits Oboler with "hav- 
ing the foresight to make a good 
science fiction film when the field was 
dead." 

When Oboler began his project, 
television science fiction had 
vanished with Tom Corbett, Space 
Cadet and Captain Video and His 
Video Rangers. Hollywood had 



Jh *>" 19 

v, r 




F*i V 



dropped science fiction to "B" pic- 
ture status after the opulent 1956 
classic Forbidden Planet. The lid re- 
mained firmly on until that phe- 
nomenon of ten years ago. Star Trek, 
appeared— followed in two years by 
2001- A Space Odyssey. 

Ten years old before it could find 
its proper, popular audience. Fan- 
tastic Invasion of Planet Earth was 
finally released this fall. "Fortunate- 
ly," Mr. Shackleton states, "the 
medium of film is such that it can 
wait for its audience. Film will still be 
there after 10, 30, or 100 years, 
because film does not go away." 

Mr. Shackleton assures me that he 
has not tampered with Oboler's film 
and presents it just as Arch shot it 
ten years ago. "All we have done," he 
continues, "is to make a new trailer 
and package it properly for a 1976 au- 
dience. I have been an avid science 
fiction fan since 1949 [his favorite 
authors are Sturgeon and Heinlein] 
and most of my favorite stories date 
from the 30 s and 40 's. That period is 
Arch Oboler's milieu. His story gives 
the audience an hour-and-a-haif of 
solid science fiction entertainment." 
So far, he says, the response to the 
film has been good. 



He has opened the film to a few test 
markets and been so encouraged by 
the response that he hopes to pro- 
duce science fiction films in 3-D 
himself. Allan Shackleton is a former 
electronics engineer, self-confessedly 
"gadget mad" and willing to gamble 
on the combination of 3-D and 
science fiction. 

Three-dimensional processes for 
film have been around for a long 
time, very nearly as long as cine- 
matography itself. But the story of 
modern 3-D begins in the optical labs 
of Raphael G. Wolff Studios. It was 
the spring of 1947 and stereocinema- 
tography was almost fifty years old, 
but no one had as yet made a lasting 
success of what the public considered 
to be a novelty for carnivals and 
trade shows. 

One of the first projects to develop 
at Wolff was Milton Gunzburg's 
documentary about a boy and his 
hotrod. Gunzburg was trying to cap- 
ture on film the excitement and emo- 
tional pulse of the hotrod engine with 
all its gleaming chrome and custom 
metal-work. It just didn't come 
across using traditional techniques. 
An acquaintance told him of the 
work being done in 3-D; they tried 



Kathleen Hughes, who was featured 
in It Came From Outer Space, de- 
monstrates the visual impact of the 
3-D process. "It" (below) reveals 
its true form to the curious and 
soon-to-be-terrified Richard Carlson. 





This lobby card is an example of 
the artwork displayed at the front 
of a theater to advertise its cur- 
rent feature. This example tries 
to convey an impression of the 3-D 
process in a science fiction film. 

some test footage, and it "came 
across." 

After this success, the first modern 
3-D film process company was organ- 
ized— Naturalvision. For some time 
their test films were shown around 
Hollywood at various private screen- 
ings in back rooms. Nothing hap- 
pened. The movie moguls squinted 
through the polaroid glasses, chewed 
their cigars, and waited. 

Finally Arch Oboler heard about a 
test screening at the American 
Society of Cinema tographers' Club 
House in Hollywood. He was prepar- 
ing a film about pushing a railroad 
through the African jungle. Oboler 
had been looking for a way to make 
the audience feel, understand, and ex- 
perience the conflict of man against 
jungle. Bwana Devil started 
shooting on June 18, 1952— in the 
Naturalvision 3-D process. 

26 



In the following eighteen months, 
some 40 films were shot in almost as 
many different 3-D systems. After 
the initial box-office success of 
Bwana Devil, studios hurried to con- 
vert their productions to what they 
thought would be the system of the 
future. 

The studios were feeling the crunch 
of television on the market; 3-D, they 
hoped, would be the answer. The 
golden days of film-making might be 
reborn yet; 3-D would revolutionize 
the industry just as sound had done 
after 1926. 

In 1953, most Hollywood pictures 
were shot in 3-D; in 1954, almost no 
pictures were made in the "dimension 
of the future. " 

Why? The reasons are many. Even 
before the 3-D trend reached its peak, 
Rudolph Mate, cinematographer for 
R.K.O.'s 3-D Second Chance, said, 
"Using stereo in trick fashion to 
show off technical potential, instead 
of applying the process solely to the 
telling of the motion picture story to 
the best advantage, will kill the 
novelty and public interest in it, 



within a short time." 

Further, there were problems with 
the technology of the process. The 
principal terror being out-of-synch 
projectors. The process at the begin- 
ning of the fifties required the left 
and right eye images to be shown on 
separate projectors whose shutters 
were to be electronically linked. The 
linkage was critical: as little as half a 
frame out of synch is enough to cause 
discomfort to the viewer. 

Poor synchronisation plagued 3-D 
as late as 1960. Twentieth Century 
Fox released September Storm in 
widescreen color and 3-D. It was 
reported that at one showing in 
Detroit's Fox Theater the projectors 
got so far out of synch that the hero, 
Mark Stevens, appeared to have four 
arms. Finally one of the projectors 
was shut down and the rest of the 
film was shown flat. 

Then there is the old polaroid 
glasses bug-a-boo. Some people 
found them uncomfortable, others 
found them difficult to wear over 
their prescription glasses; and they 
cut down the screen illumination 



level for everybody. Still, it was 
maintained that if the film-goer was 
given something exciting to see- 
other than an assortment of objects 
hurled at them from the screen— they 
would put up with the small incon- 
venience that glasses represent. Cer- 
tainly such high-quality films as 
MGM's Kiss Me Kate and Warner 
Brothers' Hondo seemed to support 
the theory. But by the time they were 
released it was too late. 

Something new had arrived to 
distract audiences from the 
"silliness" of 3-D. Cinerama arrived 
in New York in October of 1952 and 
Cinemascope in 1953 with The Robe. 

Interestingly enough, neither of 
these processes were new. Cinema- 
scope was invented in 1927. Cine- 
rama's triple screen system was 
beaten by Raoul Grimoin Sanson in 
1896 with ten projectors linked 
together in a system called 
Cineorama. 

Entrepreneurs of these "new" 
wide-screen processes had no 
compunctions about claiming 3-D ef- 
fects for strictly two dimensional 
films. Cinemascope was heralded as 
"the 3-D you see without glasses!" 
These wild claims were soon aban- 
doned after the public had an op- 
portunity to judge for itself. 

Nevertheless, in time the new 
wide-screen format became the in- 
dustry standard and 3-D all but 
vanished. 

Universal Studios had made three 
3-D science fiction films: It Came 
From Outer Space, Creature From 
the Black Lagoon, and Revenge of 
the Creature. It Came From Outer 
Space had the distinction of being 
based on a story by Ray Bradbury of 
beings from "out there" crash land- 
ing on Earth and trying to repair 
their ship and escape before being 
slaughtered by xenophobic Earth- 
lings. The dramatic conflict centers 
on the level-headed astronomer- 
scientist who tries to protect the 
"bems" from his fellow men who are 
bent on stamping out the 
"monsters." 

The two Creature films have only a 
science fiction premise. Their con- 
struction is more appropriate to a 
horror film. The Creature in this case 
is a "gill-man," a missing link be- 
tween land and amphibious creatures 
that is hominid in form. The value 
here is in the startling underwater 
3-D photography. One wonders why 
Jacques Cousteau doesn't shoot 
everything in 3-D! Many of the prob- 
lems with 3-D photography are sud- 
denly assets underwater. The silt of 
the water illuminated by the curtains 
of sunlight, stir in ripples before our 
eyes all the way to infinity. Fish and 




Richard Carlson and Barbara Rush 
are interrupted from an evening of 
star-gazing by the meteoric arrival 
of alien visitors whose disabled 
craft crash-lands in the desert. 




The force of the impact partially 
buries the ship at the bottom of 
its self made crater. Astronomer 
Richard Carlson is first to arrive. 




With much courage and no sense he 
approaches the alien ship in an 
effort to establish "first contact" 
and to learn why the aliens are here. 
Later, in the desert, the mystery 
deepens as they follow the aliens . 




plants float in perspective before us, 
moving with the currents that sud- 
denly become visible and dramatic in 
3-D. For the first time since Milton 
Gunzburg's hotrod film we have a 
film that needs 3-D to tell the story. 

United Artists had only one entry 
into the science fiction market; it was 
shot in color as opposed to Univer- 
sal's three in black and white. GOG 
takes place in a secret subterranean 
laboratory. It is a story of man ver- 
sus machine, as enemy agents gain 
control of a central computer which 
then turns robots and machinery 
against the human inhabitants. This 
film was released at the end of the 
3-D fad and may never have been 
shown in 3-D. Many other films 
shared a similar fate. 

Astor Films released the first sci-fi 
3-D film. Robot Monster, directed by 
Phil Tucker. But it borrowed 2-D 
clips from One Million BC, which was 
made in 1940 to pad out its footage of 
prehistoric monsters. 

Nothing happened in 3-D after 
1960 and the September Storm 
debacle .save for Arch Oboler filming 
The Bubble and then finding that he 
had no market for his project. 

In 1974 Carlo Ponti took the 
plunge with Andy Warhol Produc- 
tions to remake Frankenstein. It was 
shot in the new Spacevision process 
that Arch Oboler has used for his 
unreleased film. It took the commer- 
cial success of Frankenstein and the 
current upswing in the sci-fi market 
to make the Fantastic Invasion of 
Planet Earth possible. 

While Fantastic Invasion of Planet 
Earth is not a technology-oriented 
science fiction film like 2001 , and its 
theme more suitable for a Twilight 
Zone or Outer Limits TV episode 
rather than a feature film, it is never- 
theless an interesting story— but the 
real fun of the show is the use of 3-D. 
Certainly it is head and shoulders 
above some of its older brothers of 
the 50 's in terms of acting, story con- 
tent, and the use of the 3-D process. 

Set in the form of a science-fiction 
mystery, the film begins with three 
storm-tossed passengers in a light 
airplane. Lost and desperately 
searching for a place to land (the 
female passenger has gone into 
labor), they arrive in a small town, 
disturbingly different from any place 
they've ever seen. The mystery 
deepens as they explore a world 
which juxtaposes Gothic ruins. Old 
West saloons, and city streets. Slow- 
ly they discover the true nature of 
this grotesque "Disneyland" and 
mystery turns into terror. 

The intriguing and precise 3-D ef- 
fects, while not basic to the story, are 
always a delight, whether set in the 

27 




28 




Above: Michael Cole attempts to de- 
stroy the mind-conditioning machine 
used by the aliens to control the 
populace in Fantastic Invasion . . . 



Left: One of Universal's most popular 
lobby posters had a celluloid flap say- 
ing "3-D", which was used over the pos- 
ter when a theater ran the film in 3-D. 



midst of a mid-afternoon rainstorm 
or in an underground tunnel. Arch 
Oboler began the 3-D craze of the 
50's with his Bwana Devil; perhaps 
now in 1977 we will see another 
rebirth of 3-D and SF with the long- 
delayed release of Fantastic 
Invasion. -fa 

CONTINUING 
IN NEXT ISSUE: 



• A History of 3-D Photography 

• How Different Processes Work 

• How To Take Your Own 3-D Photos 

PLUS 

• Actual 3-D Drawings, Photos, and 
Movie Stills. . . Complete With 
Diagrams That Show Four 
Different Methods You Can Use 
To Make Them Jump Right Off 
The Pages. 



Don't Miss Part II 
of This Special Feature. 



The 3-D movies of the '50s 

Filmography 

(This list includes no foreign films and only a few of the many 
short subjects.) 



ALLIED ARTISTS 



THE MAZE (1953) Richard Carlson. 
Veronica Hurst, Hillary Brooke, 
Michael Pate. Director: William 
Cameron Menzies. 81 min. B&W. 
Chiller. 

DRAGONFLY SQUAD (1954) John 
Hodiak, Barbara Britton, Bruce Ben- 
nett, Jess Barker. Director: Lesley 
Selander. 82 min. B&W. (Never 
released in 3-D.) War story. * 



MAN IN THE DARK (1953) Ed 
mund O'Brien, Audrey Totter, Horace 
McMahon, Ted de Corsica. Director: 
Lew Landers. 70 min. Tinted Sepia. 
Murder mystery. (Famous for the 
quantity of objects thrown at the au- 
dience and the roller-coaster sequence 
at end.) 

NEBRASKAN (1953) Phil Carey, 
Roberta Haynes, Wallace Ford, 
Richard Webb, Lee Van Cleef, Jay 
Silverheels. Director: Fred. F. Sears. 
68 min. Color. Western. 




CAT WOMEN OF THE MOON 

(1953) Sonny Tufts, Betty Arlen, Vic- 
tor Jory, Ellye Marshall, Marie Wind- 
sor. Director: Arthur Hilton. 

ROBOT MONSTER Phil Tucker, 
Director. Al Zimbalist, Producer. (First 
3-D Science Fiction movie.) 



COLUMBIA 



DRUMS OF TAHITI (1954) Dennis 
O'Keefe, Patricia Medina, Francis L. 
Sullivan, George Keymas. Director: 
William Castle. 73 min. Color. 
Costume drama. 

FORT Tl (1953) George Montgomery, 
Donna Reed, Joan Vohs, Irving 
Bacon, James Seay. Director: William 
Castle. 73 min. Color. Western. 

GUN FURY (1953) Rock Hudson, 
Phil Carey, Lee Marvin, Neville Brand. 
Director: Raoul Walsh. 83 min. Color. 
Western. 

JESSE JAMES VERSUS THE 
DALTONS (1954) Brett King, Bar- 
bara Lawrence, James Griffith, Bill 
Phipps, John Cliff. Director: William 
Castle. 65 min. Color. Western. 

MAD MAGICIAN (1954) Vincent 
Price, Mary Murphy, Eva Gabor, 
Patrick O'Neal, John Emery. Director: 
John Brahm. 72 min. Color. Fantasy. 

MISS SADIE THOMPSON (1953) 
Rita Hayworth, Jose Ferrer, Aldo Ray, 
Russell Collins, Charles Bronson. 
Director: Curtis Bernhardt. 91 min. 
Color. Drama (Never released in 3-D.)* 



ARENA (1953) Gig Young, Jean 
Hagen, Polly Bergen, Henry Morgan, 
Robert Horton. Director: Richard 
Fleischer. 83 min. Color. Rodeo 
drama. 

KISS ME KATE (1953) Ka'thryn 
Grayson, Howard Keel, Ann Miller, 
Bobby Van, Keenan Wynn. Director: 
George Sidney. 109 min. Color. 
Musical. (One of the best.) 



PARAMOUNT 



CEASE FIRE (1953) Roy Thompson, 
Henry Gowzkouski, Richard K. Elliott. 
75 min. B&W. Combat drama. 

FLIGHT TO TANGIER (1953) Joan 
Fontaine, Jack Palance, Corinne 
Calvert, Robert Douglas. Director: 
Charles Marquis Warren. 90 min. Col- 
or. Action-Drama. 

MONEY FROM HOMEH953) Dean 
Martin, Jerry Lewis, Pat Crowley, 
Robert Strauss, Jack Kruschen. Direc- 
tor: George Marshall. 100 min. Color. 
Comedy. 

SANGAREE (1953) Fernando 
Lamas, Arlene Dahl, Patricia Medina, 
Francis L. Sullivan. Director: Edward 
Ludwig. 94 min. Color. Historical 
romance. 



* 



Most films made in 1953 were shot in the two- 
camera 3-D process. As the fad died out many 
were shown in 3-D only in major cities. Others 
were never shown in 3-D at all. 




THOSE REDHEADS FROM 
SEATTLE (1953) Rhonda Fleming, 
Gene Barry, Agnes Moorehead, Teresa 
Brewer, Guy Mitchell. Director: Lewis 
R. Foster. 90 min. Color. Musical. 



DANGEROUS MISSION (1954) 
Victor Mature, Piper Laurie, Vincent 
Price, William Bendix, Betta St. John. 
Director: Louis King. 75 min. Color. 
Crime drama. 

DEVIL'S CANYON (1953) Virginia 
Mayo, Dale Robertson, Stephen 
McNally, Arthur Hunnicutt. Director: 
Alfred L. Werker. 92 min. Color. 
Prison drama. 

FRENCH LINE (1954) Jane Russell, 
Gilbert Roland, Arthur Hunnicutt, 
Mary McCarthy. Director: Lloyd Bacon. 
102 min. Color. Musical. 

LOUISIANA TERRITORY Val 

Winter, Leo Zinser, Julian Meister, 65 
min. Color (not released in 3-D). Mardi 
Gras romance.* 

RANGERS OF THE NORTH 

(No other information available.) 

SECOND CHANCEH953) Robert 
Mitchum, Linda Darnell, Jack Palance, 
Reginald Sheffield. Director: Rudolph 
Mate. 82 min. Color. Drama. (Exciting 
cable-car sequence.) 

29 




Creature From The Black Lagoon 

SON OF SINBAD (1954) Dale 
Robertson, Sally Forest, Lili St. Cyr, 
Vincent Price, Jay Novello. Direc- 
tor: Ted Tetalaff. 88 min. Color, (not 
released in 3-D). Adventure.* 



TWENTIETH CENTURY FQX 



GORILLA AT LARGE (1954) 
Cameron Mitchell, Anne Bancroft, Lee 
J. Cobb, Raymond Burr. Director: 
Harmon Jones. 84 min. Color. Murder 
mystery. 

INFERNO (1953) Robert Ryan, Rhon- 
da Fleming, William Lundigan, Henry 
Hull, Carl Betz. Director: Roy Baker. 
83 min. Color. Drama. 

SEPTEMBER STORM (1960) 
Joanne Dru, Mark Stevens, Robert 
Strauss, Asher Dann, Jean-Pierre 
Kerien, Vera Valmont. Director: Byron 
Haskin. 99 min. Color. Drama. 



UNITED ARTISTS 



BWANA DEVIL (1952) Robert 
Stack, Barbara Britton, Nigel Bruce, 
Ramsey Hill. Director: Arch Oboler. 79 
min. Color. Adventure. 

GOG (1954) Richard Egan, Constance 
Dowling, Herbert Marshall, John 
Wengraf. Director: Herbert L. Strock. 
85 min. Color. Science Fiction. 

HANNAH LEE (1954) Macdonald 
Carey, Joanne Dru, John Ireland. 74 
min. Color, (not released in 3-D). 
Western.* 

I, THE JURY (1953) Biff Elliott, 
Preston Foster, Peggie Castle, Elisha 
Cook, Jr., John Qualen. Director: 
Harry Essex. 87 min. BErW. (Mickey 
Spillane murder mystery.) 

SOUTHWEST PASSAGE (1954) 
Joanne Dru, Rod Cameron, John 
Ireland, John Dehner, Guinn Williams, 
Mark Hanna. Director: Ray Nazzaro. 
82 min. Color. Western. 

30 



UNIVERSAL INTERNA TIONAL 



CREATURE FROM THE BLACK 
LAGOON (1954) Richard Carlson, 
Julia Adams, Richard Denning, An- 
tonio Moreno. Director: Jack Arnold. 
Cinematographers: William E. Snyder, 
James E. Havens. 79 min. BErW. 
Science Fiction. (First-rate under-water 
3-D photography.) 

GLASS WEB (1953) Edward G. 
Robinson, John Forsythe, Marcia 
Henderson, Richard Denning. Director: 
Jack Arnold. 81 min. B&W. Murder 
mystery, 

IT CAME FROM OUTER SPACE 

(1953) Richard Carlson, Barbara Rush, 
Charles Drake, Kathleen Hughes. 
Director: Jack Arnold. Script: Harry 
Essex (from a story by Ray Bradbury). 
Cinematography: Clifford Stine. 81 
min. BEfW. Science Fiction. 

REVENGE OF THE CREATURE 

(1955) John Agar, Lori Nelson, John 
Bromfield, Nestor Paiva. Director: 
Jack Arnold. 82 min. B&W. Science 
Fiction. 

TAZA, SON OF COCHISE (1954) 
Rock Hudson, Barbara Rush, Bart 
Roberts, Gregg Palmer. Director: 
Douglas Morris. 79 min. Color. 
Western. 

WINGS OF THE HAWK (1955) 
Van Heflin, Julia Adams, Abbe Lane, 
Antonio Moreno, Noah Beery. Direc- 
tor: Budd Doetticher. 80 min. Color. 
Adventure drama. 



WARNER BROTHERS 



CHARGE AT FEATHER RIVER 

(1953) Guy Madison, Vera Miles, Frank 
Lovejoy, Helen Westcott, Ron Hager- 
thy. Director: Gordon Douglas. 96 
min. Color. Western. (Another movie 
famous for the sheer quantity of ar- 
rows, rocks, and debris hurled out. 
Frank Lovejoy even spits into the au- 
dience!) 



HONDO (1953) John Wayne, 
Geraldine Page, Ward Bond, James 
Arness, Lee Aaker. Director: John Far- 
row. 84 min. Color. Western. 

BOUNTY HUNTER (1954) Ran- 
dolph Scott, Delores Dorn, Marie 
Windsor, Howard Petrie. Director: An- 
dre de Toth. 79 min. Color. Western. 

DIAL M FOR MURDER (1954) 
Ray Milland, Grace Kelly, Robert Cum- 
mings, John Williams, Anthony 
Dawson. Director: Alfred Hitchcock. 
105 min. Color. Suspense. (Never 
released in 3-D.)* 

HOUSE OF WAX (1953) Vincent 
Price, Frank Lovejoy, Phyllis Kirk, 
Carolyn Jones, Phillip Tonge, Paul 
Cavenagh. Director: Andre de Toth. 
88 min. Color. Chiller. 

MOONLIGHTER (1953) Barbara 
Stanwyck, Fred MacMurray, Ward 
Bond, William Ching, John Dierkes, 
Jack Elam. Director: Roy Rowland. 75 
min. BErW. Western. 

PHANTOM OF THE RUE 
MORGUE (1954) Karl Maiden, 
Claude Dauphin, Patricia Medina, 
Steve Forrest, Men/ Griffin, Erin 
O'Brien-Moore. Director: Roy Del 
Ruth. 84 min. Color. Chiller. 



INDEPENDENT FEA TURES & 
SHORT SUBJECTS 



APE (1976) Rod Arrants, Joanna 
DeVarona, Alex Nicol. Director: Paul 
Leder. 75 min. Color. Fantasy- 
Adventure. 

SAM SPACE Volcano Productions. 

MELODY Walt Disney animated car- 
toon. 

FRANKENSTEIN Andy Warhol; 
Monarch Releasing (1974). 

HYPNOTIC HICK Walter Lantz; 
first 3-D cartoon, Woody Woodpecker. 

TELL-TALE HEART UP. A. car 

toon, Columbia. 

LUMBER JACK RABBIT 

Warner's Bugs Bunny entree. 

BOO MOON Paramount's Casper 
cartoon. 

MOTOR RHYTHM R.K.O. Musical 
short. 

SPOOKS Columbia, Three Stooges. 

PARDON MY BACKFIRE Colum- 
bia, Three Stooges. 



(Continued from page 15) 

ly United States aircraft. At the time the 
Star Trek pilot episode was being done, 
Matt and Gene decided to use the '"N" 
because of the United States, and then 
they thought it needed more than one 
"C". A pair of "C's" were used primarily 
because this reads well from a distance. 

Bruce Bartlett 

Sarasota, Fla. 
We'd like to thank you, Bruce and all the 
other trekkers who pointed this out ot us. 
The Naval Construction Contract ex- 
planation, however, was not pulled out of 
the air. That is the explanation given by 
Franz Joseph in the Star Trek Blueprints, 
copyrighted 1973 by Paramount Pictures. 

GROKKING THE ESSENCE 

. . . This magazine will make an excellent 
platform for organizing a strong voice in 
the science fiction community. We want 
science fiction portrayed on the screen 
but we are no longer desperate. Unfor- 
tunately, many narrow-visioned film- 
makers are equating the essence (of SF 
dramas) with their special effects budgets 
instead of grokking the essence fully. 
There are many examples in the Star Trek 
story about an ideal solution that re- 
tained the essence and turned out to be in- 
expensive. If we do not take action we will 
experience a flood of empty science fiction. 
. . The market is ours: We are responsible 
for its existence. I've been dabbling with 
•the idea of an organization. It's strength 
would be it's lack of allegiance to one per- 
son or story, and it's sole purpose would 
be as a voice for science fiction. It's 
logical masthead-GROK (Getting 
Restless Of Krap). 

Ja Gaudet 

Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
Good and true thoughts. We, the people, 
have tremendous influence on the pro- 
ducts offered to us (yes, movies are pro- 
ducts ). Instead of GROK, return to your 
original idea and let STARLOG be the 
"organization" we need. . . The voice 
speaking loudly for quality in the science 
fiction field. We have no intention of com- 
promising our insistence on strong drama, 
intelligent themes, and creative visions in 
SF productions. 



PAST ERRORS 

... I just received my issue of STARLOG 
#3 and. as usual, I enjoyed the articles 
very much. I did, however, find a mistake 
on your puzzle page. Number 50 down 
asks for the author of Things to Come, 
and the puzzle answer lists Jules Verne. I 
believe that the correct answer is H.G. 
Wells. Also, I'd like to mention a made- 
for-TV movie that was not on your list: 
Hauser's Memory, a 1970 TV movie starr- 
ing David McCallum, Susan Strasberg, 
Robert Webber, Leslie Nielson and Lilli 
Palmer. It was about a scientist who in- 
jects himself with the brain fluid of 
another man in order to re-live that man's 
experiences. 

Patricia Gallagher 
New York, NY 

Actually, number 50 down asks for the 



author of #6" across, First Men in the 
Moon. This is the 1964 British film based 
on H.G. Wells' novel, "First Men On The 
Moon. " Our puzzle-maker was obviously 
thinking of Jules Verne's novel "From the 
Earth to the Moon. "' 

... I think your magazine is great but I do 
have one complaint about issue #2. Nick 
Tate is my favorite cast member and you 
called his character Lieutenant Alan 
Carter, when during the first season it 
was Captain. Can you explain this? 

Lee M. Mallison 

Battle Creek, Mich. 
During the first season Carter was a 
Lieutenant. By the time the second 
season started Alan had been promoted. 

... On page 35 of STARLOG #2 you have 
Martin Landau breaking through a pane 
of plastic. The caption states that it is 
from "The Mark of Archanon", but it 



couldn't be because Koenig and Maya 
were in an Eagle during the whole episode 
except the tail end. 

Brad Larsen 

Gaston, OR 
Brad was not the only sharp-eyed Space 
fan who pointed out this mistake. Due to 
misinformation, we labeled that picture of 
Martin Landau as having been from "Ar- 
chenon. " Actually, it is not from any 
episode at all It is an action still taken at 
a special photo session for press release. 

Because of the large volume of mail we 

receive, personal replies are impossible. 

Comments, questions, and suggestions 

of general interest are appreciated and 

may be selected for publication in future 

Communications. Write: 

STARLOG Communications 

180 Madison Ave. Suite 1503 

New York, IM.Y. 10016 



"Our technology is capable of extraordinary 
new ventures in space, one of which 
is the space city idea."-CARL SAGAN 

'The establishment of such space colonies 
is possible and even practical in terms 
of present-day technology.'-lSAAC asimov 



THE HIGH 
FROflTIGR 

Human Colonies in Space 
Gerard K. O'Neill 



By the year 2150 more people, 
may be living in space 
than on earth— 



The Princeton University physicist who 
devised the idea discusses all 
aspects of space colonization, who 
will work in space and how they will 
get there,- possibilities for family 
life and earthlike living conditions,- 
how gravity, agriculture, climate 
and the length of days will be 
selected by the space community 
residents^ and how orbital manu- 
facturing facilities can be built 
from materials with solar energy. I 



Photographs 
$8.95 

EBwiLLIAM MORROW 

105 Madison Avenue. New York. N.Y. 10016 




WILL THE REAL KONG STAND UP? 



The brand new Dino De Lauren- 
tiis version of King Kong has 
gone all out to match the ori- 
ginal in spectacle . . . and at 
tremendous cost overruns. 
Instead of the stop-motion ani- 
mation that Willis O'Brien used 
so successfully in the original, 
the Paramount Kong is a full 
sized, working model. Can the 
"original" stand up to this mod- 
ern usurper? 

SAMPLE PUZZIE: 



R/M/A X s 




ALL CAPITALIZED words in the 
list below can be found in the maze, 
and once you've circled all the hid- 
den words . . . the remaining letters 
of the maze (reading left to right 
and top to bottom) will spell out a 
mystery phrase (answer below). 
Note: the words ANN and DARROW 
are not hidden together. 



A 


R 


M 


S 


T 


R 





IM 


G 


T 





B 


O 


R 


L 


L 


S 


R 


u 


A 


S 





IM 


1 


D 


R 


S 


R 


E 


A 


P 





D 


A 


R 


R 





W 


K 


E 


T 


A 


G 


N 


N 


T 


M 


V 


V 


F 


K 


H 


C 


S 


E 


G 


E 


D 


1 


G 


E 


L 





E 


G 


A 


R 


L 


J 


D 


N 


S 





E 


E 


R 


L 


N 


N 


R 


IM 


L 


G 


E 


D 


D 


F 


A 


T 


T 





U 


1 


M 


S 





W 


L 


1 


R 


A 


F 


L 


S 


A 


D 


K 


D 


L 


R 


T 


G 





1 


E 


U 


L 


L 


S 


T 


A 


S 





N 


R 





E 


B 


W 


Z 


P 


C 


1 


E 


S 


C 


W 


R 


E 


L 


T 


W 


R 


W 


F 


D 





R 


P 


E 


T 


U 


G 


D 


T 





A 


1 


F 


A 


A 








A 


R 


Y 


L 


M 


R 


IM 


Y 


L 


E 


R 


N 


T 


P 


G 


C 


1 


L 


A 


A 


D 


IM 


D 


J 


N 


N 


G 


E 


E 


E 


S 


P 


N 


1 


E 


T 


N 


E 


G 


R 


A 


S 


D 


R 


E 


E 


M 


N 


R 





B 


E 


R 


E 


T 


U 


P 


M 





C 


F 


E 



ANN DARROW 

APE 

Rob't. ARMSTRONG 

Huge BIRDS 

Run by COMPUTER 

Merian C. COOPER 

(co-author) 
High COST 
DiNO de Laurentiis 

(producer) 
DINOSAURS 
EDGAR Wallace 

(co-author) 
EMPIRE STATE 
"King Kong ESCAPES' 
FALL 
FANGS 
FAY WRAY 
45 FEET high (robot) 



32 



People FLEE 

Great GATE 

"King Kong vs. GODZILLA" 

Bo GOLDMAN (script) 

GORE 

GORILLA 

Chas. GRODIN 

(male lead) 
HARM 
JEFF Bridges 

(co-star) 
JETS 

KING KONG 
LAIR 

Jennifer LANGE (heroine) 
"LEGEND of King Kong" 

(proposed film) 
Famous LOG scene 
LOVE 
MONSTER 
Willis O'BRIEN 

(special effects) 



PTERODACTYL 

RAGE 

"King Kong: The Legend REBORN' 

(proposed film) 
ROBOT 
ROLLS eyes 

Joseph SARGENT (director) 
SKULL Island 
"SON of Kong" 
Max STEINER (music) 
SUAVE (Denham) 
World TRADE Center 
Wrecks TRAIN 
TWO million dollars 

(cost of robot) 
UPDATED 
WILD 

"Eighth WONDER of the World" 
Giant WORM 



STARTEASERS ANSWER 

Naniaa tiim dno>j 





King Kong's classic duet: BEAUTY . . . and the BEAST. (Paramount's new version) 




Jessica Lange, as Dawn, discovers she has nothing to fear from the monstrous gorilla, 
but their relationship ends (below) in spectacular tragedy. 




33 






' 



"The science fiction writer," said Fredric Brown in 1951, "has the privilege 
denied to writers in all other fields, except sheer fantasy, to tailor his 
background, his universe, to the story he wants to write; he can, thereby, 
achieve an integration and an integrity denied to the writer who has only one 
universe to work in and who must twist and trim the products of his imagina- 
tion to fit the inflexible mold of fact. A horrid word, fact, when jt denies you 
the future and the stars." 

Of the 28 novels and several hundred short stories Brown left us when he 
died in 1972, none creates an alien world more thoroughly than does 
"Arena"— in which the only image of normalcy is the figure of a naked man. 
All else is alien, beautiful, and frightening. 

The story first appeared in "Astounding Science Fiction Magazine" in 
1944. You know the basic idea from the Star Trek episode with the same 
name: a superior being pits representatives of two militarily equal adversaries 
against one another in hand-to-hand battle; the winner's race will survive, the 
loser's will be annihilated. The Outer Limits "Fun and Games" story was also 
based on "Arena." 

But if you think you'll find no surprises in the original Brown version, 
you're mistaken. Here you'll meet a different kind of monster in a different 
setting, and a different kind of superior being with motives not quite what 
they first seem tobe. 

Take note of the changes made in order to translate the story into the for- 
mat of Star Trek, with Captain Kirk in the role of Carson^ Notice, that the 
theme is slightly altered by the change in the protagonist's motives and ac- 
tions at the climax. Consider the whopper of a special effects problem' Star 

v would have had if they had used Brown's original monster instead of 
""orn. And notice where the idea for the Gorn came from. ■: ■ ',.'" 
ih technical concerns are of little interest, just read this classic short 
. Jnd let yourself .tJe.'puHed into a totally imaginary world in which a 

ger-than-life. conflict is faced by a realistic, hero,, in which the fate of the . 
uitv. . . 




^ 







_, arson openec 
his eyes, and found himself looking 
upward into a flickering blue 
dimness. 

It was hot, and he was lying on 
sand, and a sharp rock embedded in 
the sand was hurting his back. He 
rolled over to his side, off the rock, 
and then pushed himself up to a sit- 
ting position. 

"I'm crazy," he thought. "Crazy— 
or dead—or something." The sand 
was blue, bright blue. And there 
wasn't any such thing as bright blue 
sand on Earth Or any of the planets. 

Blue Sand. 

Blue sand under a blue dome that 
wasn't the sky nor yet a room, but a 
circumscribed area— somehow he 
knew it was circumscribed and finite 
even though he couldn't see to. the. 
top of it. 



e picked up some of the sand in 
his hand and let jt run through his 
fingers. It trickled down onto his 
bare leg. Bare? 

Naked. He was stark naked, and 
already his body was dripping 
perspiration from the enervating 
heat, coated blue with sand wherever 
sand had touched it. 

But elsewhere his body was white. 

He thought: Then this sand is real- 
ly blue. If it seemed blue only because 
of the blue light, then I 'd be blue also. 
But I'm white, so the sand is blue. 
Blue sand. There isn't any blue sand. 
There isn't any place like this place 
I'm in. 

Sweat was running down in his 
eyes. 

It was hot, hotter than hell. Only 
hell— the hell of the ancients— was 
supposed to be red and not blue. 

35 



But if this place wasn't hell, what 
was it? Only Mercury, among the 
planets, had heat like this and this 
wasn't Mercury. And Mercury was 
some four billion miles from— 

It came back to him then, where 
he'd been. In the little one-man 
scouter, outside the orbit of Pluto, 
scouting a scant million miles to one 
side of the Earth Armada drawn up 
in battle array there to intercept the 
Outsiders. 

That sudden strident nerve-shat- 
tering ringing of the alarm bell when 
the rival scouter— the Outsider 
ship— had come within range of his 
detectors- 
No one knew who the Outsiders 
were, what they looked like, from 
what far galaxy they came, other 
than that it was in the general direc- 
tion of the Pleiades. 

First, sporadic raids on Earth col- 
onies and outposts. Isolated battles 
between Earth patrols and small 
groups of Outsider spaceships; bat- 
tles sometimes won and sometimes 
lost, but never to date resulting in 
the capture of an alien vessel. Nor 
had any member of a raided colony 
ever survived to describe the Out- 
siders who had left the ships, if in- 
deed they had left them. 



Not a too-serious menace, at first, 
for the raids had not been too 
numerous or destructive. And in- 
dividually, the ships had proved 
slightly inferior in armament to the 
best of Earth's fighters, although 
somewhat superior in speed and 
maneuverability. A sufficient edge in 
speed, in fact, to give the Outsiders 
their choice of running or fighting, 
unless surrounded. 

Nevertheless, Earth had prepared 
for serious trouble, for a showdown, 
building the mightiest armada of all 
time. It had been waiting now, that 
armada, for a long time. But now the 
showdown was coming. 

Scouts twenty billion miles out had 
detected the approach of a mighty 
fleet— a showdown fleet— of the Out- 
siders. Those scouts had never come 
back, but their radiotronic messages 
had. And now Earth's armada, all ten 
thousand ships and half-million 
fighting spacemen, was out there, 
outside Pluto's orbit, waiting to in- 
tercept and battle to the death. 

And an even battle it was going to 
be. judging by the advance reports of 
the men of the far picket line who had 
given their lives to report— before 
they had died— on the size and 
strength of the alien fleet. 




scouter swung after it, he 
saw it again, diving straight 
toward the ground." 



Pen and ink drawings: RENE 
36 



Anybody's battle, with the mas- 
tery of the solar system hanging in 
the balance, on an even chance. A 
last and only chance, for Earth and 
all her colonies lay at the utter mercy 
of the Outsiders if they ran that 
gauntlet— 

Oh yes. Bob Carson remembered 
now. 

Not that it explained blue sand and 
flickering blueness. But that strident 
alarming of the bell and his leap for 
the control panel. His frenzied fum- 
bling as he strapped himself into the 
seat. The dot in the visiplate thac 
grew larger. 

The dryness of his mouth. The 
awful knowledge that this was it . 
For him, at least, although the main 
fleets were still out of range of one 
another. 

Three seconds— that's how long a 
space-battle lasted. Time enough to 
count to three, slowly, and then 
you'd won or you were dead. One hit 
completely took care of a lightly 
armed and armored little one-man 
craft like a scouter. 

Frantically— as, unconsciously, his 
dry lips shaped the word "One"— he 
worked at the controls to keep that 
growing dot centered on the crossed 
spiderwebs of the visiplate. His 
hands doing that, while his right foot 
hovered over the pedal that would 
fire the bolt. The single bolt of con- 
centrated hell that had to hit— or 
else. There wouldn't be time for any 
second shot. 

"Two." He didn't know he'd said 
that, either. The dot in the visiplate 
wasn't a dot now. Only a few thou- 
sand miles away, it showed up in the 
magnification of the plate as though 
it were only a few hundred yards off. 
It was a sleek, fast little scouter, 
about the size of his. 

And an alien ship, all right. 

"Thr— " His foot touched the bolt- 
release pedal— 

And then the Outsider had 
swerved suddenly and was off the 
crosshairs. Carson punched keys 
frantically, to follow. 

For a tenth of a second, it was out 
of the visiplate entirely, and then as 
the nose of his scouter swung after it, 
he saw it again, diving straight 
toward the ground. 

The ground? 

It was an optical illusion of some 
sort. It had to be. that planet— or 
whatever it was— that now covered 
the visiplate. Whatever it was, it 
couldn't be there. Couldn't possibly. 
There wasn 't any planet nearer than 
Neptune three billion miles away— 
with Pluto around on the opposite 
side of the distant pinpoint sun. 

His detectors! They hadn't shown 
any object of planetary dimensions, 



even of asteroid dimensions. They 
still didn't. 

So it couldn't be there, that what- 
ever-it-was he was driving into, only 
a few hundred miles below him. 

And in his sudden anxiety to keep 
from crashing, he forgot even the 
Outsider ship. He fired the front 
braking rockets, and even as the 
sudden change of speed slammed him 
forward against the seat straps, he 
fired full right for an emergency turn. 
Pushed them down and held them 
down, knowing that he needed 
everything the ship had to keep from 
crashing and that a turn that sudden 
would black him out for a moment. 

It did black him out. 



And that was all. 
Now he was sitting in hot blue sand, 
stark naked but otherwise unhurt. 
No sign of his spacecraft and— for 
that matter— no sign of space. That 
curve overhead wasn't a sky, what- 
ever else it was. 

He scrambled to his feet. 

Gravity seemed a little more than 
Earth-normal. Not much more. 

Flat sand stretching away, a few 
scrawny bushes in clumps here and 
there. The bushes were blue, too, but 
in varying shades, some lighter than 
the blue of the sand, some darker. 

Out from under the nearest bush 
ran a little thing that was like a 
lizard, except that it had more than 
four legs. It was blue, too. Bright 
blue. It saw him and ran back again 
under the bush. 

He looked up again, trying to 
decide what was overhead. It wasn't 
exactly a roof, but it was dome- 
shaped. It flickered and was hard to 
look at. But definitely, it curved 
down to the ground, to the blue sand, 
all around him. 

He wasn't far from being under the 
center of the dome. At a guess, it was 
a hundred yards to the nearest wall, 
if it was a wall. It was as though a 
blue hemisphere of something, about 
two hundred and fifty yards in cir- 
cumference, was inverted over the 
flat expanse of the sand. 

And everything blue, except one 
object. Over near a far curving wall 
there was a red object. Roughly 
spherical, it seemed to be about a 
yard in diameter. Too far for him to 
see clearly through the flickering 
blueness. But, unaccountably, he 
shuddered. 

He wiped sweat from his forehead, 
or tried to, with the back of his hand. 

Was this a dream, a nightmare? 
This heat, this sand, that vague feel- 
ing of horror he felt when he looked 
toward that red thing? 



A dream? No, one didn't go to sleep 
and dream in the midst of a battle in 
space. 

Death? No, never. If there were im- 
mortality, it wouldn't be a senseless 
thing like this, a thing of blue heat 
and blue sand and a red horror. 

Then he heard the voice- 
Inside his head he heard it, not 
with his ears. It came from nowhere 
or everywhere. 

"Through spaces and dimensions 
wandering, " rang the words in his 
mind, "and in this space and this 
time I find two peoples about to wage 
a war that would exterminate one 
and so weaken the other that it would 
retrogress and never fulfill its 
destiny, but decay and return to 
mindless dust whence it came. And I 
say this must not happen. " 

"Who. . . what are you?" Carson 
didn't say it aloud, but the question 
formed itself in his brain. 

"You would not understand com- 
pletely. I am—" There was a pause, 
as though the voice sought— in Car- 
son's brain— for a word that wasn't 
there, a word he didn't know. "/ am 
the end of evolution of a race so old 
the time can not be expressed in 
words that have meaning to your 
mind. A race fused into a single enti- 
ty, eternal— 

"An entity such as your primitive 
race might become"— again the 
groping for a word— "time from now. 
So might the race you call, in your 
mind, the Outsiders. So I intervene in 
the battle to come, the battle between 
fleets so evenly matched that destruc- 
tion of both races will result. One 
must survive. One must progress and 
evolve. " 

"One?" thought Carson. "Mine, 
or—" 

"It is in my power to stop the war, 
to send the Outsiders back to their 
galaxy. But they would return, or 
your race would sooner or later follow 
them there. Only by remaining in this 
space and time to intervene constant- 
ly could I prevent them from destroy- 
ing one another, and I cannot remain. 

"So I shall intervene. I shall 
destroy one fleet completely without 
loss to the other. One civilization 
shall thus survive. " 

Nightmare. This had to be a 
nightmare, Carson thought. But he 
knew it wasn't. 

It was too mad, too impossible, to 
be anything but real. 

He didn't dare ask the question— 
which ? But his thoughts asked it for 
him. 

"The stronger shall survive," said 
the voice. "That I can not— and 
would not— change. I merely inter- 
vene to make it a complete victory, 



not"— groping again — "not Pyrrhic 
victory to a broken race. " 

"From the outskirts of the not-yet 
battle I plucked two individuals, you 
and an Outsider. I see from your 
mind that in your early history of na- 
tionalisms battles between cham- 
pions, to decide issues between races, 
were not unknown. 

"You and your opponent are here 
pitted against one another, naked 
and unarmed, under conditions 
equally unfamiliar to you both, equal- 
ly unpleasant to you both. There is 
no time limit, for here there is no 
time. The survivor is the champion of 
his race. That race survives. " 

"But—" Carson's protest was too 
inarticulate for expression, but the 
voice answered it. 

"It is fair. The conditions are such 
that the accident of physical strength 
will not completely decide the issue. 
There is a barrier. You will under- 
stand. Brain-power and courage will 
be more important than strength. 
Most especially courage, which is the 
will to survive." 

"But while this goes on, the fleets 
will-" 

"No, you are in another space, 
another time. For as long as you are 
here, time stands still in the universe 
you know. I see you wonder whether 
this place is real. It is, and it is not. 
As I— to your limited understand- 
ing—am and am not real. My ex- 
istence is mental and not physical. 
You saw me as a planet; it could have 
been as a dustmote or a sun. 

"But to you this place is now real. 
What you suffer here will be real. And 
if you die here, your death will be real. 
If you die, your failure will be the end 
of your race. That is enough for you 
to know. " 

And then the voice was gone. 

Again he was 
alone, but not alone. For as Carson 
looked up, he saw that the red thing, 
the red sphere of horror which he now 
knew was the Outsider, was rolling 
toward him. 

Rolling. 

It seemed to have no legs or arms 
that he could see, no features. It 
rolled across the blue sand with the 
fluid quickness of a drop of mercury. 
And before it, in some manner he 
could not understand, came a para- 
lyzing wave of nauseating, retching, 
horrid hatred. 

Carson looked about him frantical- 
ly. A stone, lying in the sand a few 
feet away, was the nearest thing to a 
weapon. It wasn't large, but it had 
sharp edges, like a slab of flint. It 
looked a bit like blue flint. 



37 




'He stood on tiptoe and reached as high as he could 
and the barrier was still there." 



He picked it up, and crouched to 
receive the attack. It was coming 
fast, faster than he could run. 

No time to think out how he was 
going to fight it, and how anyway 
could he plan to battle a creature 
whose strength, whose characteris- 
tics, whose method of fighting he did 
not know? Rolling so fast, it looked 
more than ever like a perfect sphere. 

Ten yards away. Five. And then it 
stopped. 

Rather, it was stopped. Abruptly 
the near side of it flattened as though 
it had run up against an invisible 
wall. It bounced, actually bounced 
back. 

Then it rolled forward again, but 
more slowly, more cautiously. It 
stopped again, at the same place. It 
tried again, a few yards to one side. 

There was a barrier there of some 
sort. It clicked, then, in Carson's 
mind. That thought projected into 
his mind by the Entity who had 
brought them here: "—accident of 
physical strength will not completely 
decide the issue. There is a barrier." 

A force-field, of course. Not the 
Netzian Field, known' to Earth 
science, for that glowed and emitted 
a crackling sound. This one was in- 
visible, silent. 

It was a wall that ran from side to 
side of the inverted hemisphere; Car- 
son didn't have to verify that 
himself. The Roller was doing that; 
rolling sideways along the barrier, 
seeking a break in it that wasn't 
there. 

Carson took half a dozen steps for- 
ward, his left hand groping out 
before him, and then his hand 
touched the barrier. It felt smooth, 
yielding, like a sheet of rubber rather 
than like glass. Warm to his touch, 
but no warmer than the sand under- 
foot. And it was completely invisible, 
even at close range. 

He dropped the stone and put both 
hands against it, pushing. It seemed 
to yield, just a trifle. But no farther 
than that trifle, even when he pushed 
with all his weight. It felt like a sheet 
of rubber backed up by steel. Limited 
resiliency, and then firm strength. 

He stood on tiptoe and reached as 
high as he could and the barrier was 
still there. 

He saw the Roller coming back, 
having reached one side of the arena. 
That feeling of nausea hit Carson 
again, and he stepped back from the 
barrier as it went by. It didn't stop. 

But did the barrier stop at ground 
level? Carson knelt down and bur- 
rowed in the sand. It was soft, ligh* 
easy to dig in. At two feet down th»> 
barrier was still there. 

The Roller was coming back again. 
Obviously, it couldn't find a way 



through at either side. 

There must be a way through, Car- 
son thought. Some way we can get at 
each other, else this duel is mean- 
ingless. 

But no hurry now, in finding that 
out. There was something to try first. 
The Roller was back now, and it stop- 
ped just across the barrier, only six 
feet away. It seemed to be studying 
him, although for the life of him, Car- 
son couldn't find external evidence of 
sense organs on the thing. Nothing 
that looked like eyes or ears, or even 
a mouth. There was though, he now 
saw, a series of grooves— perhaps a 
dozen of them altogether, and he saw 
two tentacles suddenly push out 
from two of the grooves and dip into 
the sand as though testing its con- 
sistency. Tentacles about an inch in 
diameter and perhaps a foot and a 
half long. 

But the tentacles were retractable 
into the grooves and were kept there 
except when not in use. They were 
retracted when the thing rolled and 
seemed to have nothing to do with its 
method of locomotion. That, as far as 
Carson could judge, seemed to be ac- 
complished by some shifting— just 
how he couldn't even imagine— of its 
center of gravity. 

He shuddered as he looked at the 
thing. It was alien, utterly alien, hor- 
ribly different from anything on 
Earth or any of the life forms found 
on the other solar planets. Instinc- 
tively, somehow, he knew its mind 
was as alien as its body. 

But he had to try. If it had no 
telepathic powers at all, the attempt 
was foredoomed to failure, yet he 
thought it had such powers. There 
had, at any rate, been a projection of 
something that was not physical at 
the time a few minutes ago when it 
had first started for him. An almost 
tangible wave of hatred. 

If it could project 
that, perhaps it could read his mind 
as well, sufficiently for his purpose. 

Deliberately, Carson picked up the 
rock that had been his only weapon, 
then tossed it down again in a 
gesture of relinquishment and raised 
his empty hands, palms up, before 
him. 

He spoke aloud, knowing that 
although the words would be mean- 
ingless to the creature before him, 
speaking them would focus his own 
thoughts more completely upon the 
message. 

"Can we not have peace between 
us?" he said, his voice sounding 
strange in the utter stillness. "The 
Entity who brought us here has told 
us what must happen if our races 



fight— extinction of one and weaken- 
ing and retrogression of the other. 
The battle between them, said the 
Entity, depends upon what we do 
here. Why can not we agree to an 
eternal peace— your race to its 
galaxy, we to ours?" 

Carson blanked out his mind to 
receive a reply. 

It came, and it staggered him back, 
physically. He actually recoiled 
several steps in sheer horror at the 
depth and intensity of the hatred and 
lust-to-kill of the red images that had 
been projected at him. Not as ar- 
ticulate words— as had come to him 
the thoughts of the Entity— but as 
wave upon wave of fierce emotion. 

For a moment that seemed an eter- 
nity he had to struggle against the 
mental impact of that hatred, fight to 
clear his mind of it and drive out the 
alien thoughts to which he had given 
admittance by blanking his own 
thoughts. He wanted to retch. 

Slowly his mind cleared as,. slowly, 
the mind of a man wakening from 
nightmare clears away the fear-fabric 
of which the dream was woven. He 
was breathing hard and felt weaker, 
but he could think. 

He stood studying the Roller. It 
had been motionless during the men- 
tal duel it had so nearly won. Now it 
rolled a few feet to one side, to the 
nearest of the blue bushes. Three ten- 
tacles whipped out of their grooves 
and began to investigate the bush. 

"O.K.," Carson said, "so it's war 
then." He managed a wry grin. "If I 
got your answer straight, peace 
doesn't appeal to you." And, because 
he was, after all, a quite young man 
and couldn't resist the impulse to be 
dramatic, he added. "To the death!" 

But his voice, in that utter silence, 
sounded very silly, even to himself. It 
came to him, then, that this was to 
the death. Not only his own death or 
that of the red spherical thing which 
he now thought of as the Roller, but 
death to the entire race of one or the 
other of them. The end of the human 
race, if he failed. 

It made him suddenly very humble 
and very afraid to think that. More 
than to think it, to know it. 
Somehow, with a knowledge that was 
above even faith, he knew that the 
Entity who had arranged this duel 
had told the truth about its inten- 
tions and its powers. It wasn't kid- 
ding. 

The future of humanity depended 
upon him. It was an awful thing to 
realize, and he wrenched his mind 
away from it. He had to concentrate 
on the situation at hand. 

There had to be some way of get- 
ting through the barrier, or of killing 
through the barrier. 



Mentally? He hoped that wasn't 
all, for the Roller obviously had 
stronger telepathic powers than the 
primitive, undeveloped ones of the 
human race. Or did it? 

He had been able to drive the 
thoughts of the Roller out of his own 
mind; could it drive out his? If its 
ability to project were stronger, 
might not its receptivity mechanism 
be more vulnerable? 

He stared at it and endeavored to 
concentrate and focus all his 
thoughts upon it. 

"Die, " he thought, "You are going 
to die. You are dying. You are— " 

He tried variations on it, and men- 
tal pictures. Sweat stood out on his 
forehead and he found himself 
trembling with the intensity of the ef- 
fort. But the Roller went ahead with 
its investigation of the bush, as ut- 
terly unaffected as though Carson 
had been reciting the multiplication 
tables. 

So that was no good. 

He felt a bit weak and dizzy from 
the heat and his strenuous effort at 
concentration. He sat down on the 
blue sand to rest and gave his full at- 
tention to watching and studying the 
Roller. By close study, perhaps, he 
could judge its strength and detect 
its weaknesses, learn things that 
would be valuable to know when and 
if they should come to grips. 

It was breaking off twigs. Carson 
watched carefully, trying to judge 
just how hard it worked to do that. 
Later, he thought, he could find a 
similar bush on his own side, break 
off twigs of equal thickness himself , 
and gain a comparison of physical 
strength between his own arms and 
hands and those tentacles. 

The twigs broke off hard; the 
Roller was having to struggle with 
each one, he saw. Each tentacle, he- 
saw, bifurcated at the tip into two 
fingers, each tipped by a nail or claw. 
The claws didn't seem to be par- 
ticularly long or dangerous. No more 
so than his own fingernails, if they 
were let to grow a bit. 

No, on the whole, it didn't look too 
tough to handle physically. Unless, 
of course, that bush was made of 
pretty tough stuff. Carson looked 
around him and, yes, right within 
reach was another bush of identically 
the same type. 

He reached over and snapped off a 
twig. It was brittle, easy to break. Of 
course, the Roller might have been 
faking deliberately but he didn't 
think so. 

On the other hand, where was it 
vulnerable? Just how would he go 
about killing it, if he got the chance? 
He went back to studying it. The 
outer hide looked pretty tough. He'd 

39 



need a sharp weapon of some sort. He 
picked up the piece of rock again. It 
was about twelve inches long, nar- 
row, and fairly sharp on one end. If it 
chipped like flint, he could make a 
serviceable knife out of it. 

The Roller was continuing its in- 
vestigations of the bushes. It rolled 
again, to the nearest one of another 
type. A little blue lizard, many- 
legged like the one Carson had seen 
on his side of the barrier, darted out 
from under the bush. 

A tentacle of the Roller lashed out 
and caught it, picked it up. Another 
tentacle whipped over and began to 
pull legs off the lizard, as coldly and 
calmly as it had pulled twigs off the 
bush. The creature struggled fran- 
tically and emitted a shrill squealing 
sound that was the first sound Car- 
son had heard here other than the 
sound of his own voice. 

Carson shuddered and wanted to 
turn his eyes away. But he made 
himself continue to watch; anything 
he could learn about his opponent 
might prove valuable. Even this 
knowledge of its unnecessary cruelty. 
Particularly, he thought with a sud- 
den vicious surge of emotion, this 
knowledge of its unnecessary cruelty. 
It would make it a pleasure to kill the 
thing, if and when the chance came. 

He steeled himself to watch the 
dismembering of the lizard, for that 
very reason. 

But he felt glad when, with half its 
legs gone, the lizard quit squealing 
and struggling and lay limp and dead 
in the Roller's grasp. 

It didn't continue with the rest of 
the legs. Contemptuously it tossed 
the dead lizard away from it, in Car- 
son's direction. It arced through the 
air between them and landed at his 
feet. 

It had come through the barrier! 
The barrier wasn't there any more! 



Carson was on his 
feet in a flash, the knife gripped 
tightly in his hand, and leaped for- 
ward. He'd settle this thing here and 
now! With the barrier gone— 

But it wasn't gone. He found that 
out the hard way, running head on in- 
to it and nearly knocking himself sil- 
ly. He bounced back, and fell. 

And as he sat up, shaking his head 
to clear it, he saw something coming 
through the air toward him, and to 
duck it, he threw himself flat again 
on the sand, and to one side. He got 
his body out of the way, but there 
was a sudden sharp pain in the calf of 
his left leg. 

He rolled backward, ignoring the 
pain, and scrambled to his feet. It 
was a rock, he saw now, that had 

40 



struck him. And the Roller was pick- 
ing up another one now, swinging it 
back gripped between two tentacles, 
getting ready to throw again. 

It sailed through the air toward 
him, but he was easily able to step 
out of its way. The Roller, apparent- 
ly, could throw straight, but not hard 
nor far. The first rock had struck him 
only because he had been sitting 
down and had not seen it coming un- 
til it was almost upon him. 

Even as he stepped aside from that 
weak second throw, Carson drew 
back his right arm and let fly with 
the rock that was still in his hand. If 
missiles, he thought with sudden ela- 
tion, can cross the barrier, then two 
can play at' the game of throwing 
them. And the good right arm of an 
Earthman— 

He couldn't miss a three-foot 
sphere at only four-yard range, and 
he didn't miss. The rock whizzed 
straight, and with a speed several 
times that of the missiles the Roller 
had thrown. It hit dead center, but it 
hit flat, unfortunately, instead of 
point first. 

But it hit with a resounding 
thump, and obviously it hurt. The 
Roller had been reaching for another 
rock, but it changed its mind and got 
out of there instead. By the time Car- 
son could pick up and throw another 
rock, the Roller was forty yards back 
from the barrier and going strong. 

His second throw missed by feet, 
and his third throw was short. The 
Roller was back out of range— at 
least out of range of a missile heavy 
enough to be damaging. 

Carson grinned. That round had 
been his. Except— 

He quit grinning as he bent over to 
examine the calf of his leg. A jagged 
edge of the stone had made a pretty 
deep cut, several inches long. It was 
bleeding freely, but he didn't think it 
had gone • deep enough to hit an 
artery. If it stopped bleeding of its 
own accord, well and good. It not, he 
was in for trouble. 

Finding out one thing, though, 
took precedence over that cut. The 
nature of the barrier. 

He went forward to it again, this 
time groping with his hands before 
him. He found it; then holding one 
hand against it, he tossed a handful 
of sand at it with the other hand. The 
sand went right through. His hand 
didn't. 

Organic matter versus inorganic? 
No, because the dead lizard had gone 
through it, and a lizard, alive or dead, 
was certainly organic. Plant life? He 
broke off a twig and poked it at the 
barrier. The twig went through, with 
no resistance, but when his fingers 
gripping the twig came to the barrier, 



they were stopped. 

He couldn't get through it, nor 
could the Roller. But rocks and sand 
and a dead lizard- 
How about a live lizard? He went 
hunting, under bushes, until he found 
one, and caught it. He tossed it gent- 
ly against the barrier and it bounced 
back and scurried away across the 
blue sand. 

That gave him the answer, in so far 
as he could determine it now. The 
screen was a barrier to living things. 
Dead or inorganic matter could cross 
it. 

That off his mind, Carson looked at 
his injured leg again. The bleeding 
was lessening, which meant he 
wouldn't need to worry about mak- 
ing a tourniquet. But he should find 
some water, if any was available, to 
clean the wound. 

Water— the thought of it made him 
realize that he was getting awfully 
thirsty. He'd have to find water, in 
case this contest turned out to be a 
protracted one. 

Limping slightly now, he started 
off to make a full circuit of his half of 
the arena. Guiding himself with one 
hand along the barrier, he walked to 
his right until he came to the curving 
sidewall. It was visible, a dull blue- 
grey at close range, and the surface 
of it felt j ust like the central barrier. 

He experimented by tossing a 
handful of sand at it, and the sand 
reached the wall and disappeared as 
it went through. The hemispherical 
shell was a force-field, too. But an 
opaque one, instead of transparent 
like the barrier. 

He followed it around until he came 
back to the barrier, and walked back 
along the barrier to the point from 
which he'd started. 

No sign of water. 

Worried now, he started a series of 
zigzags back and forth between the 
barrier and the wall, covering the 
intervening space thoroughly. 

No water. Blue sand, blue bushes, 
and intolerable heat. Nothing else. 

It must be his imagination, he told 
himself angrily, that he was suffering 
that much from thirst. How long had 
he been here? Of course, no time at 
all, according to his own space-time 
frame. The Entity had told him time 
stood still out there, while he was 
here. But his body processes went on 
here, just the same. And according to 
his body's reckoning, how long had 
he been here? Three or four hours, 
perhaps. Certainly not long enough 
to be suffering seriously from thirst. 

But he was suffering from it; his 
throat dry and parched. Probably the 
intense heat was the cause. It was 
hot! A hundred and thirty Fahren- 
heit, at a guess. A dry, still heat 



without the slightest movement of 
air. 

He was limping rather badly, and 
utterly fagged out when he'd finished 
the futile exploration of his domain. 

He stared across at the motionless 
Roller and hoped it was as miserable 
as he was. And quite possibly it 
wasn't enjoying this, either. The En- 
tity had said the conditions here were 
equally unfamiliar and equally un- 
comfortable for both of them. Maybe 
the Roller came from a planet where 
two-hundred degree heat was the 
norm. Maybe it was freezing while he 
was roasting. 

Maybe the air was as much too 
thick for it as it was too thin for him. 
For the exertion of his explorations 
had left him panting. The at- 
mosphere here, he realized now, was 
not much thicker than that on Mars. 

No water. 

That meant a deadline, for him at 
any rate. Unless he could find a way 
to cross that barrier or to kill his 
enemy from this side of it, thirst 
would kill him, eventually. 

It gave him a feeling of desperate 
urgency. He must hurry. 

But he made himself sit down a mo- 
ment to rest, to think. 



What was there 
to do? Nothing, and yet so many 
things. The several varieties of 
bushes for example. They didn't look 
promising, but he'd have to examine 
them for possibilities. And his leg— 
he'd have to do something about 
that, even without water to clean it. 
Gather ammunition in the form of 
rocks. Find a rock that would make a 
good knife. 

His leg hurt rather badly now, and 
he decided that came first. One type 
of bush had leaves— or things rather 
similar to leaves. He pulled off a 
handful of them and decided, after 
examination, to take a chance on 
them. He used them to clean off the 
sand and dirt and caked blood, then 
made a pad of fresh leaves and tied it 
over the wound with tendrils from 
the same bush. 

The tendrils proved unexpectedly 
tough and strong. They were slender, 
and soft and pliable, yet he couldn't 
break them at all. He had to saw 
them off the bush with the sharp 
edge of a piece of the blue flint. Some 
of the thicker ones were over a foot 
long, and he filed away in his 
memory, for future reference, the fact 
that a bunch of the thick ones, tied 
together, would make a pretty ser- 
viceable rope. Maybe he'd be able to 
think of a use for rope. 

Next, he made himself a knife. The 
blue flint did chip. From a foot-long 



splinter of it, he fashioned himself a 
crude but lethal weapon. And of ten- 
drils from the bush, he made himself 
a rope-belt through which he could 
thrust the flint knife, to keep it with 
him all the time and yet have his 
hands free. 

He went back to studying the 
bushes. There were three other types. 
One was leafless, dry, brittle, rather 
like a dried tumbleweed. Another was 
of soft, crumbly wood, almost like 
punk. It looked and felt as though it 
would make excellent tinder for a 
fire. The third type was the most 
nearly woodlike. It had fragile leaves 
that wilted at a touch, but the stalks, 
although short, were straight and 
strong. 

It was horribly, unbearably hot. 

He limped up to the barrier, felt to 
make sure that it was still there. It 
was. 

He stood watching the Roller for a 
while. It was keeping a safe distance 
back from the barrier, out of effective 
stone-throwing range. It was moving 
around back there, doing something. 
He couldn't tell what it was doing. 

Once it stopped moving, came a lit- 
tle closer, and seemed to concentrate 
its attention on him. Again Carson 
had to fight off a wave of nausea. He 
threw a stone at it and the Roller 
retreated and went back to whatever 
it had been doing before. 

At least he could make it keep its 
distance. 

And, he thought bitterly, a devil of 
a lot of good that did him. Just the 
same, he spent the next hour or two 
gathering stones of suitable size for 
throwing and making several neat 
piles of them, near his side of the bar- 
rier. 



His throat burned now. It was dif- 
ficult for him to think about any- 
thing except water. 

But he had to think about other 
things. About getting through the 
barrier, under or over it, getting at 
that red sphere and killing it before 
this place of heat and thirst killed 
him first. 

The barrier went to the wall upon 
either side, but how high and how far 
under the sand? 

For just a moment, Carson's mind 
was too fuzzy to think out how he 
could find out either of those things. 
Idly, sitting there in the hot sand— 
and he didn't remember sitting 
down— he watched a blue lizard crawl 
from the shelter of one bush to the 
shelter of another. 

From under the second bush, it 
looked out at him. 

Carson grinned at it. Maybe he was 
getting a bit punch-drunk, because 
he remembered suddenly the old 
story of the desert-colonists on Mars, 
taken from an older desert story on 
Earth— "Pretty soon you get so 
lonesome you find yourself talking to 
the lizards, and then not so long after 
that you find the lizards talking back 
to you— " 

He should have been concen- 
trating, of course, on how to kill the 
Roller, but instead he grinned at the 
lizard and said, "Hello, there." 

The lizard took a few steps toward 
him. "Hello," it said. 

Carson was stunned for a moment, 
and then he put back his head and 
roared with laughter. It didn't hurt 
his throat to do so, either; he hadn't 
been that thirsty. 

Why not? Why should the Entity 

who thought up this nightmare of a 

(Continued on page 44) 




'The lizard took a few steps toward him. 
'Hello,' it said." 



41 



STAR TREK 



Captain Kirk 
and the Gorn 



The screen credit reads: "By Gene L. Coon from 
a story by Fredric Brown," and the telepiay is 
just that: an amalgam of the ideas of two men 
in the creation of a single work of art. Star 
Trek's "Arena." The framework here is Brown's: 
two forces on the brink of intergalactic annihila- 
tion, an interferring alien intelligence, the oppor- 
tunity to solve the conflict in a single personal 
duel. The story's flesh and voice are Coon's: the 
characterization (within limits) of James T. Kirk, 
the slimy Gorn, the desert terrain, the specific 
tools and methods of attack, and the final mes- 
sage. The mentality of the script is Gene Coon's; 
the soul is Fred Brown's. 



id 




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Photos: Paramount Pictures 

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42 



~*v.,.v 




S 



1 Kirk confronts an unseen enemy on the surface of a sup- 
posedly peaceful planet. It becomes clear that the 
enemy weapons are a match for the Federation's. 

2 In a second. Kirk will be abducted from the bridge. 

3 Kirk finds himself stripped of defenses and alone on a 
desert planet facing the enemy's representative. 

4 The crew on the Enterprise, even though light years 
away from where the duel is to take place, are em- 
powered to watch on the viewscreen. Spock's in charge. 

5 The hideous Gorn is much stronger than Kirk but more 
sluggish. The inventiveness of the two seems matched. 

6 First Kirk tries the simplest weapon he can find. 

7 The Gorn replies in kind, but with a much bigger rock. 

8 After escaping the snare set .for him by the Gorn, Kirk 
wins by propelling rough diamonds at his tough-skinned 
opponent from a "cannon" powered by crude gun- 
powder—fashioned out of local minerals and plants. 

9 The Metron appears and declares Kirk the winner, 
because of Kirk's display of compassion when he 
refuses to kill his enemy once victory is assured for 
earth. 





place not have a sense of humor, 
along with the other powers he has? 
Talking lizards, equipped to talk 
back in my own language, if I talk to 
them— It's a nice touch. 

He grinned at the lizard and said, 
"Come on over." But the lizard 
turned and ran away, scurrying from 
bush to bush until it was out of sight. 
He was thirsty again. 
And he had to do something. He 
couldn't win this contest by sitting 
here sweating and feeling miserable. 
He had to do something. But what? 

Get through the barrier. But he 
couldn't get through it, or over it. 
But was he certain he couldn't get 
under it? And come to think of it, 
didn't one sometimes find water by 
digging? Two birds with one stone- 
Painfully now, Carson limped up to 
the barrier and started digging, 
scooping up sand a double handful at 
a time. It was slow, hard work 
because the sand ran in at the edges 
and the deeper he got the bigger in 
diameter the hole had to be. How 
many hours it took him, he didn't 
know, but he hit bedrock four feet 
down. Dry bedrock; no sign of water. 
And the force-field of the barrier 
went down clear to the bedrock. No 
dice. Nothing. 

H e crawled out of 
the hole and lay there panting, and 
then raised his head to look across 
and see what the Roller was doing. It 
must be doing something back there. 
It was. It was making something 
out of wood from the bushes, tied 



together with tendrils. A queerly 
shaped framework about four feet 
high and roughly square. To see it 
better, Carson climbed up onto the 
mound of sand he had excavated 
from the hole, and stood there star- 
ing. 

There were two long levers sticking 
out of the back of it, one with a cup- 
shaped affair on the end of it. Seemed 
to be some sort of catapult, Carson 
thought. 

Sure enough, the Roller was lifting 
a sizeable rock into the cup-shaped 
outfit. One of his tentacles moved the 
other lever up and down for a while, 
and then he turned the machine 
slightly as though aiming it and the 
lever with the stone flew up and for- 
ward. 

The stone arced several yards over 
Carson's head, so far away that he 
didn't have to duck, but he judged 
the distance it had traveled, and 
whistled softly. He couldn't throw a 
rock that weight more than half that 
distance. And even retreating to the 
rear of his domain wouldn't put him 
out of range of that machine, if the 
Roller shoved it forward almost to 
the barrier. 

Another rock whizzed over. Not 
quite so far away this time. 

That thing could be dangerous, he 
decided. Maybe he'd better do 
something about it. 

Moving from side to side along the 
barrier, so the catapult couldn't 
bracket him, he whaled a dozen rocks 
at it. But that wasn't going to be any 
good, he saw. They had to be light 
rocks, or he couldn't throw them that 




"... The roller started a quick retreat. . .' 



far. If they hit the framework, they 
bounced off harmlessly. And the 
Roller had no difficulty, at that 
distance, in moving aside from those 
that came near it. 

Besides, his arm was tiring badly. 
He ached all over from sheer 
weariness. If he could only rest a 
while without having to duck rocks 
from that catapult at regular inter- 
vals of maybe thirty seconds each- 
He stumbled back to the rear of the 
arena. Then he saw even that wasn't 
any good. The rocks reached back 
there, too, only there were longer in- 
tervals between them, as though it 
took longer to wind up the 
mechanism, whatever it was, of the 
catapult. 

Wearily, he dragged himself back 
to the barrier again. Several times he 
fell and could barely rise to his feet to 
go on. He was, he knew, near the 
limit of his endurance. Yet he didn't 
dare stop moving now, until and 
unless he could put that catapult out 
of action. If he fell asleep, he'd never 
wake up. 

One of the stones from it gave him 
the first glimmer of an idea. It struck 
upon one of the piles of stones he'd 
gathered together near the barrier to 
use as ammunition, and it struck 
sparks. 

Sparks. Fire. Primitive man had 
made fire by striking sparks, and 
with some of those dry crumbly 
bushes as tinder— 

Luckily, a bush of that type was 
near him. He broke it off, took it over 
to the pile of stones, then patiently 
hit one stone against another until a 
spark touched the punk-like wood of 
the bush. It went up in flames so fast 
that it singed his eyebrows and was 
burned to an ash within seconds. 

But he had the idea now, and 
within minutes he had a little fire go- 
ing in the lee of the mound of sand 
he'd made digging the hole an hour or 
two ago. Tinder bushes had started 
it, and other bushes which burned, 
but more slowly, kept it a steady 
flame. 

The tough wirelike tendrils didn't 
burn readily; that made the fire- 
bombs easy to make and throw. A 
bundle of faggots tied about a small 
stone to give it weight and a loop of 
the tendril to swing it by. 

He made half a dozen of them 
before he lighted and threw the first. 
It went wide, and the Roller started a 
quick retreat, pulling the catapult 
after him. But Carson had the others 
ready and threw them in rapid suc- 
cession. The fourth wedged in the 
catapult's framework, and did the 
trick. The Roller tried desperately to 
put out the spreading blaze by throw- 
ing sand, but its clawed tentacles 



would take only a spoonful at a time 
and his efforts were ineffectual. The 
catapult burned. 

The Roller moved safely away from 
the fire and seemed to concentrate its 
attention on Carson and again he felt 
that wave of hatred and nausea. But 
more weakly; either the Roller itself 
was weakening or Carson had learned 
how to protect himself against the 
mental attack. 

He thumbed his nose at it and then 
sent it scuttling back to safety by 
throwing a stone. The Roller went 
clear to the back of its half of the 
arena and started pulling up bushes 
again. Probably it was going to make 
another catapult. 

Carson verified— for the hundredth 
time— that the barrier was still 
operating, and then found himself sit- 
ting in the sand beside it because he 
was suddenly too weak to stand up. 

His leg throbbed steadily now and 
the pangs of thirst were severe. But 
those things paled beside the utter 
physical exhaustion that gripped his 
entire body. 

And the heat. 

Hell must be like this, he thought. 
The hell that the ancients had 
believed in. He fought to stay awake, 
and yet staying awake seemed futile, 
for there was nothing he could do. 
Nothing, while the barrier remained 
impregnable and the Roller stayed 
back out of range. 

But there must be something. He 
tried to remember things he had read 
in books of archaeology about the 
methods of fighting used back in the 
days before metal and plastic. The 
stone missile, that had come first, he 
thought. Well, that he already had. 

The only improvement on it would 
be a catapult, such as the Roller had 
made. But he'd never be able to make 
one, with the tiny bits of wood 
available from the bushes— no single 
piece longer than a foot or so. Cer- 
tainly he could figure out a 
mechanism for one, but he didn't 
have the endurance left for a task 
that would take days. 

Days? But the Roller had made 
one. Had they been here days 
already? Then he remembered that 
the Roller had many tentacles to 
work with and undoubtedly could do 
such work faster than he. 

And besides, a catapult wouldn't 
decide the issue. He had to do better 
than that. 

Bow and arrow? No; he'd tried ar- 
chery once and knew his own inept- 
ness with a bow. Even with a modern 
sportsman's durasteel weapon, made 
for accuracy. With such a crude, 
pieced- together outfit as he could 
make here, he doubted if he could 
shoot as far as he could throw a rock, 



and knew he couldn't shoot as 
straight. 

Spear? Well, he could make that. It 
would be useless as a throwing 
weapon at any distance, but would be 
a handy thing at close range, if he 
ever got to close range. 

And making one would give him 
something to do. Help keep his mind 
from wandering, as it was beginning 
to do. Sometimes now, he had to con- 
centrate a while before he could 
remember why he was here, why he 
had to kill the Roller. 

Luckily he was still beside one of 
the piles of stones. He sorted through 
it until he found one shaped roughly 
like a spearhead. With a smaller 
stone he began to chip it into shape, 
fashioning sharp shoulders on the 
sides so that if it penetrated it would 
not pull out again. 

Like a harpoon? There was some- 
thing in that idea, he thought. A har- 
poon was better than a spear, maybe, 
for this crazy contest. If he could 
once get it into the Roller and had a 
rope on it, he could pull the Roller up 
against the barrier and the stone 
blade of his knife could reach through 
that barrier, even if his hands 
wouldn't. 

The shaft was harder to make than 
the head. But by splitting and join- 
ing the main stems of four of the 
bushes, and wrapping the joints with 
the tough buf. thin tendrils, he got a 
strong shaft about four feet long, and 
tied the stone head in a notch cut in 
the end. 

It was crude, but strong. 

And the rope. With the thin tough 
tendrils he made himself twenty feet 
of line. It was light and didn't look 
strong, but he knew it would hold his 
weight and to spare. He tied one end 
of it to the shaft of the harpoon and 
the other end about his right wrist. 
At least, if he threw his harpoon 
across the barrier, he'd be able to pull 
it back if he missed. 

Then when he had tied the last 
knot and there was nothing more he 
could do, the heat and the weariness 
and the pain in his leg and the dread- 
ful thirst were suddenly a thousand 
times worse _ than they had been 
before. 

He tried to stand up, to see what 
the Roller was doing now, and found 
he couldn't get to his feet. On the 
third try, he got as far as his knees 
and then fell flat again. 

"I've got to sleep," he thought. "If 
a showdown came now, I'd be 
helpless. He could come up here and 
kill me, if he knew. I've got to regain 
some strength." 

Slowly, painfully, he crawled back 
away from the barrier. Ten yards, 
twenty— 



The jar of some- 
thing thudding against the sand near 
him waked him from a confused and 
horrible dream to a more confused 
and more horrible reality, and he 
opened his eyes again to blue ra- 
diance over blue sand. 

How long had he slept? A minute? 
A day? 

Another stone thudded nearer and 
threw sand on him. He got his arms 
under him and sat up. He turned 
around and saw the Roller twenty 
yards away, at the barrier. 

It rolled away hastily as he sat up, 
not stopping until it was as far away 
as it could get. 

He'd fallen asleep too soon, he 
realized, while he was still in range of 
the Roller's throwing ability. Seeing 
him lying motionless, it had dared to 
come up to the barrier to throw at 
him. Luckily, it didn't realize how 
weak he was, or it could have stayed 
there and kept on throwing stones. 

Had he slept long? He didn't think 
so, because he felt just as he had 
before. Not rested at all, no thirstier, 
no different. Probably he'd been 
there only a few minutes. 

He started crawling again, this 
time forcing himself to keep going 
until he was as far as he could go, un- 
til the colorless, opaque wall of the 
arena's outer shell was only a yard 
away. 

Then things slipped away again— 

When he awoke, nothing about him 
was changed, but this time he knew 
that he had slept a long time. 

The first thing he became aware of 
was the inside of his mouth; it was 
dry, caked. His tongue was swollen. 

Something was wrong, he knew, as 
he returned slowly to full awareness. 
He felt less tired, the stage of utter 
exhaustion had passed. The sleep had 
taken care of that. 

But there was pain, agonizing pain. 
It wasn't until he tried to move that 
he knew that it came from his leg. 

He raised his head and looked 
down at it. It was swollen terribly 
below the knee and the swelling 
showed even half-way up his thigh. 
The plant tendrils he had used to tie 
on the protective pad of leaves now 
cut deeply into the swollen flesh. 

To get his knife under that imbed- 
ded lashing would have been impossi- 
ble. Fortunately, the final knot was 
over the shin bone, in front, where 
the vine cut in less deeply than 
elsewhere. He was able, after an 
agonizing effort, to untie the knot. 

A look under the pad of leaves told 
him the worst. Infection and blood 
poisoning, both pretty bad and get- 
ting worse. 

And without drugs, without cloth, 
without even water, there wasn't a 



45 



thing he could do about it. 

Not a thing, except die, when the 
poison had spread through his 
system. 

He knew it was hopeless, then, and 
that he'd lost. 

And with him, humanity. When he 
died here, out there in the universe he 
knew, all his friends, everybody, 
would die, too. And Earth and the 
colonized planets would be the home 
of the red, rolling, alien Outsiders. 
Creatures out of nightmare, things 
without a human attribute, who 
picked lizards apart for the fun of it. 

It was the thought of that which 
gave him courage to start crawling, 
almost blindly in pain, toward the 
barrier again. Not crawling on hands 
and knees this time, but pulling 
himself along only by his arms and 
hands. 

A chance in a million, that maybe 
he'd have strength left, when he got 
there, to throw his harpoon-spear 
just once, and with deadly effect, if— 
on another chance in a million— the 
Roller would come up to the barrier. 
Or if the barrier was gone, now. 

It took him years, it seemed, to get 
there. 

The barrier wasn't gone. It was as 
impassable as when he'd first felt it. 

And the Roller wasn't at the bar- 
rier. By raising up on his elbows, he 
could see it at the back of its part of 
the arena, working on a wooden 
framework that was a half-completed 
duplicate of the catapult he'd 
destroyed. 

It was moving slowly now. Un- 
doubtedly it had weakened, too. 

But Carson doubted that it would 
ever need that second catapult. He'd 
be dead, he thought, before it was 
finished. 

If he could attract it to the barrier, 
now, while he was still alive— He 
waved an arm and tried to shout, but 
his parched throat would make no 
sound. 

Or if he could get through the bar- 
rier— 

His mind must have slipped for a 
moment, for he found himself beating 
his fists against the barrier in futile 
rage, made himself stop. 

He closed his eyes, tried to make 
himself calm. 

"HeHo," said the voice. 

It was a small, thin voice. It 
sounded like- 
He opened his eyes and turned his 
head. It was a lizard. 

"Go away," Carson wanted to say. 
"Go away; you're not really there, or 
you're there but not really talking. 
I'm imagining things again." 

But he couldn't talk; his throat and 
tongue were past all speech with the 
dryness. He closed his eyes again. 

46 



"Hurt," said the voice. "Kill. 
Hurt— kill. Come." 

He opened his eyes again. The blue 
ten-legged lizard was still there. It 
ran a little way along the barrier, 
came back, started off again, and 
came back. 

"Hurt," it said. "Kill. Come." 

Again it started off, and came 
back. Obviously it wanted Carson to 
follow it along the barrier. 

He closed his eyes again. The voice 
kept on. The same three meaningless 
words. Each time he opened his eyes 
it ran off and came back. 

"Hurt. Kill. Come." 

Carson groaned. There would be no 
peace unless he followed the blasted 
thing. Like it wanted him to. 

He followed it, crawling. Another 
sound, a high-pitched squealing, 
came to his ears and grew louder. 

There was something lying in the 
sand, writhing, squealing. Something 
small, blue, that looked like a lizard 
and yet didn't— 

Then he saw what it was— the 
lizard whose legs the Roller had 
pulled off, so long ago. But it wasn't 
dead; it had come back to life and was 
wriggling and screaming in agony. 

"Hurt," said the other lizard. 
"Hurt. Kill. Kill." 

Carson understood. He took the 
flint knife from his belt and killed the 
tortured creature. The live lizard 
scurried off quickly. 

Carson turned back to the barrier. 
He leaned his hands and head against 
it and watched the Roller, far back, 
working on the new catapult. 

"I could get that far," he thought, 
"If I could get through. If I could get 
through, I might win yet. It looks 
weak, too. I might — " 

And then there was another reac- 
tion of black hopelessness, when pain 
sapped his will and he wished that he 
were dead. He envied the lizard he'd 
just killed. It didn't have to live on 
and suffer. And he did. It would be 
hours, it might be days, before the 
blood poisoning killed him. 

If only he could use" that knife on 
himself— 

But he knew he wouldn't. As long 
as he was alive, there was the 
millionth chance- 



He was straining, 
pushing on the barrier with the flat of 
his hands, and he noticed his arms, 
how thin and scrawny they were now. 
He must really have been here a long 
time, for days, to get as thin as that. 

How much longer now, before he 
died? How much more heat and thirst 
and pain could flesh stand? 

For a little while he was almost 
hysterical again, and then came a 



time of deep calm, and a thought that 
was startling. 

The lizard he had just killed. It had 
crossed the barrier, still alive. It had 
come from the Roller's side; the 
Roller had pulled off its legs and then 
tossed it contemptuously at him and 
it had come through the barrier. He'd 
thought, because the lizard was dead. 

But it hadn't been dead; it had been 
unconscious. 

A live lizard couldn't go through 
the barrier, but an unconscious one 
could. The barrier was not a barrier, 
then, to living flesh, but to conscious 
flesh. It was a mental projection, a 
mental hazard. 

And with that thought, Carson 
started crawling along the barrier to 
make his last desperate gamble. A 
hope so forlorn that only a dying man 
would have dared try it. 

No use weighing the odds of suc- 
cess. Not when, if he didn't try it, 
those odds were infinity to zero. 

He crawled along the barrier to the 
dune of sand, about four feet high, 
which he'd scooped out in trying- 
how many days ago?— to dig under 
the barrier or to reach water. 

That mound was right at the bar- 
rier, its farthest slope half on one side 
of the barrier, half on the other. 

Taking with him a rock from the 
pile nearby, he climbed up to the top 
of the dune and over the top, and lay 
there against the barrier, his weight 
against it so that if the barrier were 
taken away he'd roll on down the 
short slope, into the enemy territory. 

He checked to be sure that the 
knife was safely in his rope belt, that 
the harpoon was in the crook of his 
left arm and that the twenty-foot 
rope fastened to it and to his wrist. 

Then with his right hand he raised 
the rock with which he would hit 
himself on the head. Luck would have 
to be with him on that blow; it would 
have to be hard enough to knock him 
out, but not hard enough to knock 
him out for long. 

He had a hunch that the Roller was 
watching him, and would see him roll 
down through the barrier, and come 
to investigate. It would think he was 
dead, he hoped— he thought it had 
probably drawn the same deduction 
about the nature of the barrier that 
he had drawn. But it would come 
cautiously. He would have a little 
time- 
He struck. 

Pain brought him back to con- 
sciousness. A sudden sharp pain in 
his hip that was different from the 
throbbing pain in his head and the 
throbbing pain in his leg. 

But he had, thinking things out 
before he had struck himself, an- 
ticipated that very pain, even hoped 



for it, and had steeled himself against 
awakening with a sudden movement. 

He lay still, but opened his eyes 
just a slit, and saw that he had 
guessed rightly. The Roller was com- 
ing closer. It was twenty feet away 
and the pain that had awakened him 
was the stone it had tossed to see 
whether he was alive or dead. 

He lay still. It came closer, fifteen 
feet away, and stopped again. Carson 
scarcely breathed. 

As nearly as possible, he was keep- 
ing his mind a blank, lest its 
telepathic ability detect con- 
sciousness in him. And with his mind 
blanked out that way, the impact of 
its thoughts upon his mind was near- 
ly soul-shattering. 

He felt sheer horror at the utter 
alienness, the differentness of those 
thoughts. Things that he felt but 
could not understand and could never 
express, because no terrestrial 
language had words, no terrestrial 
mind had images to fit them. The 
mind of a spider, he thought, or the 
mind of a praying mantis or a Mar- 
tian sand-serpent, raised to in- 
telligence and put in telepathic rap- 
port with human minds, would be a 
homely familiar thing, compared to 
this. 

He understood now that the Entity 
had been right: Man or Roller, and 
the universe was not a place that 
could hold them both. Farther apart 
than god and devil, there could never 
be even a balance between them. 

Closer. Carson waited until it was 
only feet away, until its clawed ten- 
tacles reached out- 



Oblivious to ag- 
ony now, he sat up, raised and flung 
the harpoon with all the strength 
that remained in him. Or he thought 
it was all; sudden final strength 
flooded through him, along with a 
sudden forgetfulness of pain as 
definite as a nerve block. 

As the Roller, deeply stabbed by 
the harpoon, rolled away, Carson 
tried to get to his feet to run after it. 
He couldn't do that; he fell, but kept 
crawling. 

It reached the end of the rope, and 
he was jerked forward by the pull on 
his wrist. It dragged him a few feet 
and then stopped. Carson kept on go- 
ing, pulling himself toward it hand 
over hand along the rope. 

It stopped there, writhing ten- 
tacles trying in vain to pull out the 
harpoon. It seemed to shudder and 
quiver, and then it must have 
realized that it couldn't get away, for 
it rolled back toward him, clawed ten- 
tacles reaching out. 

Stone knife in hand, he met it. He 




'There was a long white scar there, 
bat a perfectly healed scar." 



stabbed, again and again, while those 
horrid claws ripped skin and flesh 
and muscle from his body. 

He stabbed and slashed, and at last 
it was still. 

A bell was ringing, and it took him 
a while after he'd opened his eyes to 
tell where he was and what it was. He 
was strapped into the seat of his 
scouter, and the visiplate before him 
showed only empty space. No Out- 
sider ship and no impossible planet. 

The bell was the communications 
plate signal; someone wanted him to 
switch power into the receiver. Pure- 
ly reflex action enabled him to reach 
forward and throw the lever. 

The face of Brander, captain of the 
Magellan, mother-ship of his group of 
scouters, flashed onto the screen. His 
face was pale and his black eyes glow- 
ing with excitement. 

"Magellan to Carson," he snapped. 
"Come on in. The fight's over. We've 
won!" 

The screen went blank; Brander 
would be signalling the other 
scouters of his command. 

Slowly, Carson set the controls for 
the return. Slowly, unbelievingly, he 
unstrapped himself from the seat and 
went back to get a drink at the cold- 
water tank. For some reason, he was 
unbelievably thirsty. He drank six 
glasses. 

He leaned there against the wall, 
trying to think. 

Had it happened? He was in good 
health, sound, uninjured. His thirst 
had been mental rather than 
physical; his throat hadn't been dry. 
His leg- 
He pulled up his trouser leg and 
looked at the calf. There was a long 
white scar there, but a perfectly 
healed scar. It hadn't been there 
before. He zipped open the front of 
his shirt and saw that his chest and 
abdomen were criss-crossed with 
tiny, almost unnoticeable, perfectly 



healed scars. 

It had happened. 

The scouter, under automatic con- 
trol, was already entering the hatch 
of the mother-ship. The grapples 
pulled it into its individual lock, and 
a moment later a buzzer indicated 
that the lock was air-filled. Carson 
opened the hatch and stepped out- 
side, went through the double door of 
the lock. 

He went right to Brander 's office, 
went in, and saluted. 

Brander still looked dizzily dazed. 
"Hi, Carson," he said. "What you 
missed! What a show! 

"What happened, sir?" 

"Don't know exactly. We fired one 
salvo, and their whole fleet went up 
in dust! Whatever it was jumped 
from ship to ship in a flash, even the 
ones we hadn't aimed at and that 
were out of range! The whole fleet 
disintegrated before our eyes, and we 
didn't get the paint of a single ship 
scratched! 

"We can't even claim credit for it. 
Must have been some unstable com- 
ponent in the metal they used, and 
our sighting shot just set it off. Man. 
oh man, too bad you missed all the 
excitement:" 

Carson managed to grin. It was a 
sickly ghost of a grin, for it would be 
days before he'd be over the mental 
impact of his experience, but the cap- 
tain wasn't watching, and didn't 
notice. 

"Yes, sir," he said. Common sense, 
more than modesty, told him he'd be 
branded forever as the worst liar in 
space if he ever said any more than 
that. "Yes, sir, too bad I missed all 
the excitement." -fa 



® 1944 Fredric Brown 
Reprinted by permission of Mrs. Elizabeth C. 
Brown and Agents for the Estate of Fredric 
Brown, Scott Meredith Literary Agency. Inc.. 845 
Third Avenue. New York, NY 10022 



47 



STARLOG INTERVIEW 



Nick Tate 

(Alan Carter) 

Space: 1999 




By JIM BURNS 

Nick Tate, who plays Moonbase 
Alpha's chief Eagle pilot Alan 
Carter, was born in a trunk. His 
grandmother and a greatgrand- 
mother were both opera singers; his 
grandfather was a vaudevillian; and 
both his parents are actors. A show 
business career followed naturally 
and began at a fairly early age. Back 
in the sixties, Nick appeared in many 
Australian television series and built 
himself quite a good reputation. In- 
terestingly enough, he didn't get his 
start in front of the cameras, but 
behind them in television production. 
"I guess television production is 
really the best grounding that any ac- 
tor can have," Nick explains, 
"because it has shown me all the in- 
herent problems that directors and 
production companies have in setting 
up a show. It's given me a great sym- 
pathy and rapport with the people 
who control what I do on stage or in 
front of the camera. 

Nick's TV acting career got its big- 
gest boost when he was called for a 
leading role in a musical version of 
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, which 
he did for about eighteen months. 
Because of his exposure in the 
musical, Nick was then cast, along 
with his father, in the tremendously 
popular Dynasty, a television series 
about a powerful Australian family. 
When Dynasty ended in 1971, Nick 
did several made-for-TV movies and 
then made the big decision to move 
to England. 

"One of the shows I had done in 
Australia was a thing called The 
Chaser, in which I played a private 
investigator. A man who was in- 
volved with that show suggested to 
the Andersons (Gerry and Sylvia, 
1999's producers) that 1 was the right 
kind of person for one of the astro- 
nauts. I went through the general 
screening process, and eventually I 
got the part. It was not, however the 
part of Alan Carter. It was the part 
of his off-sider (co-pilot). Alan Carter 
was to have been played by an Italian 
and the character was to be named 
Alphonse Catanie. Just before 
shooting started, the Italian couldn't 



Right: In "All That Glisters," Mar- 
tin Landau and Nick Tate as Comman- 
der John Koenig and Alan Carter face 
yet another alien, this time in the 
guise of a glowing "rock" that also 
happens to be alive. . . and dangerous. 



XTREME DANGE 





Above: In "Bringers of Wonder," Alan 
and another crew member are deluded 
into opening the reactor housing. 
Left: A helpless Carter looks on as 
the alien lashes back at Koenig in a 
scene from "All That Glisters." 



get himself released from a film he 
was doing in Italy, and a last minute 
juggle took place. They tried to find 
somebody to replace him. and I was 
the man on the spot. They had inter- 
viewed several people, but the direc- 
tor, an American, liked me and felt 
that my sort of Australian aggres- 
sion was what they wanted for the 
series. They gave me a lucky break 
and let me do it. 

"At first, I was only supposed to 
be in the premiere episode. Then they 
offered me another five, because 
things were looking interesting, and, 
at the end of the sixth episode, they 
said, "We'd like to sign you up for the 
series.' " 

Due to his great popularity, Nick 
was kept on the show for the second 
season. When asked what he thought 
was wrong with Year One, he replied: 
"I think I agree with the general 
public that there wasn't enough emo- 
tion and humor in the first season. 
This year that's been rectified. I 
always wanted to see development of 



Below: In filming "Space Brain," the director acciden- 
tally joined in the fun by slipping on the foam and dis- 



appearing into the mountain of suds. He reappeared, to 
everyone's amusement, covered with the alien menace. 




the secondary characters, which has 
happened. I think we were all very 
much aware of the series' faults, but 
we weren't aware of them when the 
show started. It was something that 
become apparent as the series wore 
on. But then, there wasn't very much 
we could do about it, because the for- 
mat and style were set. The only way 
we could do anything was to start a 
second season." 

Of course, funny incidents occurred 
while the show was being filmed. 
When pressed for one such incident, 
Nick complied with a devilish grin. 

"In the episode where the foam 
was attacking Moonbase Alpha 
("Space Brain"), we had a huge soap 
machine pumping the stuff in, and 
when they turned the machines on, 
you couldn't hear anything because 
of the roar (they used airplane 
engines to whip it up). Everyone was 
screaming and waving at one 
another, and this twelve foot wall of 
foam, which was as scary as if it had 
been a real menace, came floating 
down the studio floor, about a hun- 
dred yards wide. We were all dressed 
up in our space suits and had to tvade 
through it. At the end of the filming, 
the director, Charley Crichton, yelled 
'Cut!,' but nobody could hear him, in- 



cluding the people operating the soap 
machine. 

"He finally went rushing out in 
front of the cameras waving his 
arms and screaming, 'Cut! Cut!' He 
hit the base of the foam, shot 
underneath it like in a Laurel and 
Hardy movie, and completly disap- 
peared. When he finally struggled 
out, he looked like the abominable 
snowman!" 

How does Nick feel about his own 
character? 

"I love Alan Carter. He's my kind 
of guy, and I was very lucky to get 
the role. I was obviously cast because 
I offered that kind of volatile per- 
sonality. But I've also been able to 
bring some vulnerability to Alan's 
character. When Alan gets into a 
tough situation, I show his loyalty 
and dedication to duty. If he gets in- 
to a fight and is beaten, as happens 
more often than not, I show that 
there is a human vulnerability to his 
character. I like showing human 
foibles." 

Speaking of fights, Nick does all 
his own stunt work, and really enjoys 
working with the stuntmen on the 
various and numerous action scenes. 
His training for this sort of activity, 
in addition to the on-the-job sort. 



came from a short period in the 
Australian military. 

The danger involved in stunt work 
makes the job that much more in- 
teresting to Nick. But accidents can 
and do happen. In one scene, for ex- 
ample, Nick and the stunt men had 
carefully choreographed an entire 
fight down to the minutest detail, 
but when it came time to shoot that 
particular scene, it was late in the 
day, and it was necessary to use the 
real actor (Anton Phillips, who was 
playing Dr. Matthias) rather than his 
double. Since Phillips had had no 
stunt training, Nick quickly coached 
him on the movements necessary, in- 
structing him to jerk his head back at 
the critical moment. When the scene 
was shot, however, Phillips forgot, 
jerked forward, and caught a 
haymaker from Nick square on the 
jaw which actually knocked him out. 
Fortunately, there was no permanent 
damage, but Phillips got a valuable 
object lesson in the necessity for 
stunt rehearsals. 

During the break in production be- 
tween seasons, Nick starred in a 
made-for-television SF movie pro- 
duced by Gerry Anderson for NBC, 
entitled The Day After Tomorrow, 
dealing with Einstein's theory of 



51 




Alan Carter is about to have his 
life forces drained from him to feed 
the biological computer, Psyche, in 
Year Two's first episode "Metamorph. 



relativity. He also went back to 
Australia to star in a picture called 
The Devil's Playground, for which he 
won the 1976 Australian Best Actor 
of the Year Award. 

"In The Devil's Playground, I play 
a Catholic teaching brother— a very 
sympathetic, marvelous character. 
He's a man who drinks far too much, 
feels very strongly about things, and 
52 



is a very frustrated sort of human be- 
ing. He's not allowed the same sort 
of extrovertism as Alan Carter." 

Or Nick Tate, for that matter. The 
differences between the two are dif- 
ferences mostly in detail: occupation, 
background, schooling, etc. The 
similarities are those which make the 
man: character, beliefs, and feelings. 
This is no coincidence, of course, 
since the writers have partially 
modelled the character after the ac- 
tor. 

In Nick's own words, "Alan is one 
side of Nick Tate. And he's a side 
that I'm glad I'm being allowed to 
show." ■£■ 




ALAN 
CARTER: 



Carter is the Chief Eagle Pilot and car- 
ries the rank of Captain. He was an 
astronaut in the U.S. Space Program 
posted on the moon in January, 1999. 
His original assignment was the "Meta 
Probe." Meta was a planet that had just 
been discovered in 1998, which Earth 
scientists felt could possibly support 
human life. The probe was to be 
launched from Moonbase Alpha to 
reconnoiter the new planet first hand. 
Unfortunately, however, all that was 
changed on September 13, 1999, when 
the moon was torn from its earth orbit 
by the explosion of nuclear waste 
material. 

Alan Carter was the closest observer 
to this holocaust and made the snap de- 
cision to remain with the moon and the 
Alphans, rather than return to Earth. 

Carter was born in Australia in 1966 in 
New South Wales. His father ran a cat- 
tle ranch, and he had two brothers and a 
sister. He first discovered his love of fly- 
ing at the controls of his family's small 
aircraft, and from his first flight, knew 
that he wanted to be a pilot. 

He finished his education in Sydney, 
showing little patience with subjects 
outside his interests, but excelling in 
math and physics. Carter was a fine 
sportsman and represented his school in 
rugby, swimming, and diving. He ap- 
plied to the Australian Air Force and 
was accepted as a Pilot Cadet. Always 
at the head of his course, he was com- 
missioned an officer and served his first 
four years in places like Singapore, 
Borneo, and Bali. In Bali, he met and fell 
in love with Kali, a Eurasian girl, who 
died soon after they met. It was a blow 
that Carter never talks about, but can 
never quite forget. 

After being transferred back to 
Australia, he was accepted into a 
cooperative Australian/American Space 
program. After three years intensive 
training, he was the third man to set 
foot on Mars. Upon his return, he was 
promoted to captain and assigned to the 
Meta program to train the Eagle pilots 
and take responsibility for the main- 
tenance of the Eagles until the Probe 
was to be launched. 

A launch which, as we all know, 
never took place. 

(Information supplied by ITV. Inc.) 



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All over the country, people are losing sleep to catch a 

favorite episode of The Outer Limits— which airs after 

the late late movie in many areas. The show is an 

unchallenged favorite of millions of science-fiction 

fans; and, unquestionably, some of the episodes are 

the finest science fiction ever made for television. 

Join us for a very special journey into. . . 

if 

The Inner Mind 



The Outer Limits 



ByGARYGERANI 



The monster 
boom of the early 60 's seems to have 
been triggered by "Famous Mon- 
sters of Filmland," an independent 
juvenile magazine, which preceeded a 
new spate of low-budget scarey 
movies and, in turn, sent kids to the 
hobby shops for monster kits, 
department stores for monster 
clothes and accessories, school- 
supply counters for ghoulish lunch 
boxes and the like. 

The television networks, always 
sensitive to trends of the moment, 
hoped to cash in. On CBS, Twilight 
Zone was already making oblique 
contributions to the monster craze 
with its literate eerieness. 

ABC was therefore receptive to a 
proposal that came from Leslie 
Stevens, a producer busy on the 
Stoney Burke series, and Joseph 
Stefano, the screenwriter who had 
54 



penned Hitchcock's Psycho. As 
Stevens and Stefano described their 
project, which was to be called Please 
Stand By, there would be a terrifying 
alien in practically every episode. 

A pilot, "The Galaxy Being," was 
committed to film; the title of the 
proposed series was changed to The 
Outer Limits; and on September 13, 
1963, audiences were first gripped by 
the picture of spiraling static and the 
sound of the disembodied voice: 

"There is nothing wrong with your 
television set. Do not attempt to ad- 
just the picture. For the next hour, 
sit quietly and we will control all you 
see and hear. 

The series caught on at once, but 
many viewers had difficulty figuring 
out just what kind of show they were 
watching. The critics weren't very 
kind; they seemed to be reviewing 
some other show. ABC saw the rat- 
ings and said, "It is good," but ended 
up scratching its collective head in 
bewilderment. The series was 
cancelled after only a season and a 
half. 

Nobody seemed to know what the 
strange new show was. Perhaps the 
network executives, the critics, and 



even the public should have read the 
show's "canons"— the guide in which 
Stefano told prospective screen- 
writers of the series: 

"If you believe in something, if you 
are angry or disturbed about some- 
thing, or exasperated with joy or 
shaken with worry about something, 
be it Conformity, or Discrimination, 
or Politics, or Censorship, be it 
Patriotism, or Capital Punishment, 
or Disarmament, or Man's Inac- 
cessability to Man, or Fame, or 
Famine, or Moral/Physical Slavery, 
or Addiction, or Mass Culture, or 
Fanaticism, or Isolationism, or 
Peace— if you believe in your need to 
state your belief, you have the thread 
[of a story theme]. And all the rest is 
craft and art and intellect. 

"A high literary style encompass- 
ing the bold use of poetic imagery 
and stunning language is entirely fit- 
ting and not unnatural to the Science 
Fiction form. The very awesome and 
wondrous nature of Science, espe- 
cially when fused with imaginative 
and inventive Fiction, would seem to 
beg and perhaps inspire high-level 
thinking and writing. " 

ABC had wanted an hour-long 




Bruce Dern with the Zanti spaceship and 
its outcast passengers. "The Zanti Misfits' 
gave new meaning to the word alien. 



In "The Sixth Finger," David McCallum por- 
trayed an ignorant laborer who is artificially 
advanced into mankind's biological future. 



show that would merely jump out at 
its audience and say boo. What they 
got was thought-provoking horror 
that aspired to fine art. They did not 
know how to program or promote 
such a product. So it died— except, of 
course, for the syndicated reruns 
which will probably live intermittant- 
ly forever. 

The following retrospective glance 
at the ingredients of and mentalities 
behind The Outer Limits is intended 
to shed some light on how a mis- 
understood show that dared to be dif- 
ferent has, deservedly, become a 
classic. . . 

How does one employ artistic in- 
tention in the use of bug-eyed 
monsters? 

To quote the canons: "Each play 
must have a Bear. The Bear is that 
one splendid, staggering, shuddering 
effect that induces awe or wonder or 
tolerable terror, or even merely con- 
versation and argument." 

Realizing that a writer would most 
often resort to an alien monster to ac- 
complish his "Bear," Stefano's 
canons further admonished: 

"The viewer will follow and care 
about and at times even identify with 



a "monster' or an embodied 'element' 
or a strange and unworldly 'crea- 
ture,' but this identification cannot 
be sustained if the viewer is asked to 
view monsters and elements and 
creatures exclusively." 

Repeatedly, the canons stress the 
importance of theme and humanity: 

"Somewhere the viewer must see 
himself; and while he may see himself 
or a part of himself in a monster, he 
will resist and lose interest unless we 
provide him with a real .and human 
and recognizable hero-figure (or non- 
hero figure as the case may be). " 

But the Bear was always a major 
consideration. A typical Outer 
Limits episode budget was 
S150,000-of which fully $40,000 
would go for special effects. Stefano 
employed the Ray Mercer Company 
and Projects Unlimited, a small out- 
fit where young Jim Danforth (who 
recently did the stop-motion work for 
Flesh Gordon) was employed. Most 
of the monster heads were sculpted 
by Wah Chang, who later would 
create many monster heads for Star 
Trek— the salt vampire of "Man 
Trap" and the Gorn of "Arena" 
among them. 



(Some Outer Limits monsters ac- 
tually made appearances in Star Trek 
episodes. Creatures from both "Sec- 
ond Chance" and "Fun and Games" 
were used in Star Trek's "The Cage" 
and "The Menagerie.") 

So much was spent on monsters 
and effects in the beginning that 
Stefano found himself with funds too 
low to make one of the mid-season 
(first year) shows. To meet schedule 
and remain within the budget, he and 
Leslie Stevens came up with "Con- 
trolled Experiment"— a comedy 
about two Martians sent to earth to 
investigate our quaint custom of 
homicide. The story required the 
aliens to use a machine that would 
play back a murder in slow and fast 
motion. The reshowing of the same 
pieces of film ate up considerable run- 
ning time and gave Stefano the low- 
budget episode he needed. The epi- 
sode starred Barry Morse (Space: 
1999) and Carroll O'Connor (All in the 
Family). 

Stefano wanted "actors with in- 
tensity"— whether they were cast in 
comedy or drama. And he introduced 
and used a great many notably in- 
tense performers: David McCallum, 



Martin Landau. Robert Culp, Harry 
Guardino, Martin Sheen, Robert Du- 
vall, Bruce Dern, Grace Lee Whitney, 
William Shatner, and Leonard Ni- 
moy, to name a few. The old-timers 
he employed— like Miriam Hopkins, 
Gloria Grahame, Sir Cedric Hard- 
wick— also conveyed the serious, in- 
tense, introspective, brooding 
character necessary to the frighten- 
ing and grim style of Outer Limits. 

Perhaps more than actors or even 
monsters, the photographic techni- 
ques employed gave Ou ter Limits its 
dark, artistic, and distinctive style. 
In an interview, Stefano explained 
his costly and time-consuming 
cinematography: 

"In my first meeting with Connie 
[Conrad] Hall and John Nickolaus 
[cinematographers], I stated that I 
wanted these episodes to have the 
look of foreign films. . . foreign films 
at the time had a very special quality 
about them. Whether they were 
Bergmanesque or Japanese in feel- 
ing, there was something we were not 
doing over here, and certainly not in 
television. I also wanted, and got, a 
dramatic look to those shows." 

Conrad Hall, principal cinematog- 
rapher, understood and delivered. He 
startled viewers with his use of 
super-wide-angle shots, upward cam- 
era angles, hand-held camera work, 
vaseline-smeared lenses for various 
effects, and other cinematic tech- 
niques never before employed for 
television. 

Talented professionals in all fields 
were recruited by Stefano and 
Stevens: directors like John Braham 
{The Lodger, Hangover Square), 
Byron Haskin [War of the Worlds), 
and Gerd Oswald [A Kiss Before Dy- 
ing); special effects wizards Jim Dan- 
forth and Ray Mercer; and com- 
posers Harry Lubin (One Step 
Beyond) and Dominic Frontiere 
(Stony Burke, The Fugitive, The In- 
vaders). 

Stefano did not seek out prominent 
science fiction authors to provide his 
stories and scripts for him. He had 
noticed that for the most part, the 
literature of science fiction was too 
technical and not "human" enough 
for his tastes. Only one author's 
name is likely to leap out at you from 
the list of credits: Harlan Ellison, 
who won a Hugo Award for his fa- 
mous Star Trek episode, "City on the 
Edge of Forever," whose short- story 
collection, "Dangerous Visions," is 
still a subject of great controversy. 
56 



who was in on the creation of The 
Starlost, and whose story formed the 
basis of A Boy and His Dog, which 
won last year's Hugo. Ellison wrote 
two scripts for Outer Limits: "The 
Soldier," and "The Demon with the 
Glass Hand." 

An afficionado will notice that 
there are three slightly different 
styles within the Outer Limits 
universe. Style depended largely 
upon who was the boss at the time. 
Stevens is credited with creating the 
concept for the series, but when it 
came time to go into production, he 
was too busy and so asked his old pal 
Stefano to take over as producer. 
(Stevens and Stefano once shared a 
Greenwich Village flat in leaner days 
when both were struggling song- 
writers.) 

The episodes that Stevens wrote 
and directed tended to be modern, an- 
tiseptic, set in scientific labs and 
other featureless locales ("The 
Galaxy Being," "The Borderland," 
"Production and Decay of Unknown 
Particles"); while Stefano's shows 
leaned toward the atmospheric and 
the Gothic ('Don't Open Till 
Doomsday," "The Form of Things 
Unknown"). 

Yet another style arose at the hand 
of producer Ben Brady, who assumed 
control for the second season after 
Stefano resigned. (Stefano lost his 
battle to keep Outer Limits in its sen- 
sible Monday night slot and resigned 
when the show was suicidally shifted 
to Saturday night opposite Jackie 
Gleason.) Brady's show tended to 
play down the artistic cinematog- 
raphy, diminish the reliance upon 
monsters, and to depend more heavi- 
ly upon the writing to produce the ef- 
fects he desired. Brady gave us the 
unforgettable "Demon with the 
Glass Hand," by Ellison, but some of 
his shows lacked the identifying style 
of the first-season Outer Limits. 

One of the episodes, Stefano's "The 
Invisibles," nearly became a pilot. In 
it, Don Gordon played a government 
agent in pursuit of alien invaders. 
There was talk of a spin-off, but 
nothing materialized. It has been 
speculated that Quinn Martin's The 
Invaders may have been inspired by 
it. 

Another episode, "The Forms of 
Things Unknown," was filmed twice. 
The telecast version shows David 
McCallum as a man who invents a 
device that can "tilt time" and bring 
the dead back to life. The inventor 



had himself been dead and was 
revived through the machine. In the 
conclusion, McCallum returns to 
death by re-entering the device and 
slipping back into his own past. The 
second version came about when 
ABC asked Stefano for a pilot for a 
Hitchcock-like mystery anthology 
series. Stefano quickly shot some ad- 
ditional footage and recombined 
elements from "The Forms of Things 
Unknown." 

The new story, now called "The 
Unknown," said that McCallum only 
thinks he has conquered time. Added 
scenes show that he is merely insane. 
At the end. instead of disappearing 
into the past (how could he since his 
machine doesn't work?) he is shot to 
death by Vera Miles! 

The mystery version has never 
been telecast and, obviously, did not 
result in a mystery series. 

The final points to be made can 
best be made by Stefano himself. 
These concluding words from the 
Outer Limits canons not only reveal 
the intelligence behind that show, 
but also stand as instruction for 
science fiction producers of the pres- 
ent and of the future: 

"There must be no apology, no 
smirk; each drama, no matter how 
wordless or timeless, must be spoken 
with all the seriousness and sincerity 
and suspension-of-disbelief that a 
caring and intelligent parent employs 
in the spinning of a magic-wonderful 
tale to a child at bedtime. Humor and 
wit are honorable; the tongue in the 
cheek is most often condescending 
and gratuitous. When the tongue is 
in the cheek it is almost impossible to 
speak in anything but a garbled, 
foolish fashion. 

"With a theme deeply-felt, a style 
carefully wrought, characters and 
basic situations that are hard— real 
and identifiable— with these, all that 
can be said, can be said within the ex- 
citing, imaginative. Universe-wide 
framework of Science Fiction. No 
idea, no message or statement or plea 
is beyond the scope of such a frame- 
work. The research required to set a 
particular story in the setting of 
Science Fiction is not greater nor 
harder to attain than that research 
which is necessary to set the same 
theme in a hospital or a court of law 
or the dusty chutes of a rodeo. 

"All that is required by Please 
Stand By [Outer Limits] is the theme. 

"And the craft and art and in- 
tellect." • 



COMPLETE 
EPISODE GUIDETO 



m 



Outer 
Limits 





Here is a classic vision of that old SF cliche, 
the Bug-Eyed Monster. It appeared on the epi- 
sode entitled "The Architects of Fear." Even 
though it's a "fake," you can bet that we 
wouldn't want to cross its path in the dark. 



This promotional art appeared in magazines to advertise 
the coming of a new TV show— Outer Limits 
(Please Stand By). It shows the Galaxy Being, the key figure 
from the pilot of the same name. 

THE GALAXY BEING (9/16/63) 

A radio engineer experimenting with a 3-D TV receiver 

tunes in a being from Andromeda. 

Writer and director: Leslie Stevens 

Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: Cliff Robertson (Allan Maxwell), Jacqueline Scott 

(Carol Maxwell), Lee Phillips (Gene), William 0. Douglas 

(the Being from Andromeda), Don Harvey, Mavis Neal. 

THE ONE HUNDRED DAYS OF 
THE DRAGON (9/23/63) 

A winning Presidential candidate is being impersonated 

by an agent of an Oriental despot who can alter skin 

structure and change his appearance. 

Writer: Albert Baiter 

Director: Byron Haskin 

Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: Sidney Blackmer (William Lyons Selby), Phil Pine 

(Pearson), Richard Loo, James Hong, James Yagi. 

THE ARCHITECTS OF FEAR (9/30/63) 

A group of scientists create a fake "being" from another 

planet to frighten nations into a peaceful co-existence. 

Writer: Meyer Dolinsky 

Director: Byron Haskin 

Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Robert Culp (Allen Leighton), Geraldine Brooks 

(Mrs. Leighton), Leonard Stone (Dr. Gainer), Hal Bokar, 

William Bush. 

57 



THE MAN WITH THE POWER (10/7/63) 

A meek and mild college instructor inherits incredible and 
uncontrollable mental powers after a unique scientific ex- 
periment. 

Writer: Jerome Ross 
Director: Laslo Benedek 
Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Donald Pleasance (Harold Finley), Priscilla Morrill 
(Vera Finley), Edward C. Piatt (Dean Radcliff). 




A benevolent David McCallum in "The Sixth Finger." 

THE SIXTH FINGER (10/14/63) 

A geneticist uses a willing, uneducated miner to advance 

his experiments in evolution and thrusts him forward into 

the biological future. 

Writer: Ellis St. Joseph 

Director: James Goldstone 

Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: David McCallum (Gwyllm), Edward Mulhare (Prof. 

Mathers), Jill Haworth (Cathy), Constance Cavendish 

(Gert), Robert Doyle (Wilt Morgan), Nora Marlowe (Mrs. 

Ives), Janos Prohaska (the monkey). 




A view of 

our future 

in "The Man 

Who Was 

Never Born." 



THE MAN WHO WAS NEVER BORN 

(10/28/63) 

An astronaut accidentally passes through a time warp 

and finds the Earth of 2148 barren and populated by 

grotesque humanoids. 

Writer: Anthony Lawrence 

Director: Leonard Horn 

Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Martin Landau (Andro), Shirley Knight (Noelle), 

Bob Constantine (Bertram Cabot), Karl Held (Joseph 

Rear don). 

58 



O.B.I.T. (11/4/63) 

A senatorial investigation reveals the existence of an elec- 
tronic surveillance device invented by beings from 
another world. 
Writer: Meyer Dolinsky 
Director: Gerd Oswald 
Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Peter Breck (Senator Jeremiah Orville), Jeff Corey 
(Lomax), Harry Townes (Dr. Clifford Scott), Jeanne 
Gilbert (Barbara Scott). 

THE HUMAN FACTOR (11/11/63) 

At a military base in Greenland, the brains of two men 

are accidentally exchanged when an experiment goes 

awry. 

Writer: David Duncan 

Director: Abe Biberman 

Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Gary Merrill (Dr. James Hilton), Harry Guardino 

(Major Brothers), Sally Kellerman (Ingrid). 



Appearances are deceiving in "The Human Factor." 




CORPUS EARTHLING (11/18/63) 

The metal plate in Dr. Cameron's head enables him to 
overhear an unusual conversation: two black crystalline 
rocks discussing plans to take over the Earth by possess- 
ing the bodies of human beings. 

Writer: Orin Borstein (from a story by Louis Char- 
borneau) 

Director: Gerd Oswald 
Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Robert Culp (Dr. Paul Cameron), Salome Jens 
(Laura Cameron), Barry Atwater (Dr. Jonas Temple), 
David Garner, and Ken Renard. 

NIGHTMARE (12/2/63) 

Aliens from the planet Ebon attack the Earth and cap- 
ture some of its inhabitants. As prisoners of war, the Earth- 
men undergo intensive alien interrogation. 
Writer: Joseph Stefano 
Director: John Erman 
Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: Ed Nelson (Col. Luke Stone), James Shigeta (Major 
Jong), Martin Sheen (Private Dix), David Frankham 
(Capt. Brookman), John Anderson (Chief Interrogator), 
Whit Bissel (The General). 




IT CRAWLED OUT OF THE WOODWORK 

(12/9/63) 

A ball of black dust, sucked into a vacuum cleaner, feeds 
on the motor's energy and grows to uncontrollable pro- 
portions. 

Writer: Joseph Stefano 
Director: Gerd Oswald 
Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Scott Marlowe (Jory Peters), Michael Forest (Dr. 
stuart Peters), Barbara Luna (Gaby Christian), Joan 
Camden (Professor Linden), Kent Smith (Dr. Bloch), Ed- 
ward Asner (police inspector). 

THE BORDERLAND (12/16/63) 

Financed by a wealthy man hoping to contact his dead 
son, a team of scientists propell themselves into the 
fourth dimension, where everything is a mirror image of 
itself. 

Writer and director: Leslie Stevens 
Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: Mark Richman (Ian Fraser), Nina Foch (Eva 
Frazier), Philip Abbott (Russell), Barry Jones, Gene Ray- 
mond, Gladys Cooper. 

TOURIST ATTRACTION (12/23/63) 

Tycoon John Dexter, on a fishing cruise in South 

America, captures an enormous and supposedly extinct 

"lizard- fish." 

Writer: Dean Riesner 

Director: Laslo Benedek 

Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: Ralph Meeker (John Dexter), Henry Silva (The 

General), Janet Blair (Lynn Archer), Jerry Douglas 

(Evans). 



Outer Limits co-producer Joseph Stefano with 
the lizard-fish from "Tourist Attraction." 

These unappealing little creatures are "The 
Zanti Misfits," exiled to live on Earth. 




THE ZANTI MISFITS (12/30/63) 

The rulers of the planet Zanti, incapable of executing 
their criminals, send them into exile— on planet Earth. 
Writer: Joseph Stefano 
Director: Leonard Horn 
Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: Michael Tolan (Steven Grave), Robert F. Simon 
(General Hart), Bruce Dern (Ben Garth), Lex Johnson 
(The Operator), Olive Deering (Lisa Lawrence), Claude 
Woolman (Major Hill). 

59 




You can look at but you can't touch this alien. 

A forcefield protects him from prying human 

hands in the episode "The Bellero Shield." 



THE MICE (1/6/64) 

As an alternative to spending his life in prison, Chino 
Rivera volunteers for the "'inhabitant exchange" pro- 
gram being conducted with the planet Chromo. 
Writers: Bill S. Ballinger and Joseph Stefano (from a 
story by Bill S. Ballinger and Lou Morheim) 
Director: Gerd Oswald 
Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Henry Silva (Chino Rivera), Diana Sands, Michael 
Higgins, Gene Tyburn, Don Ross. 



CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT (1/13/64) 

Martians Phobos and Diemos investigate Earth's quaint 

custom of homicide by using a machine that can replay a 

murder in fast and slow motion. 

Writer and director: Leslie Stevens 

Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: Barry Morse (Phobos), Carroll O'Conner (Diemos), 

Grace Lee Whitney (Carla), Robert Kelljan (Frank). 

DON'T OPEN TILL DOOMSDAY (1/20/64) 

Two eloping teenagers spend their wedding night in a 
mysterious bridal suite that hasn't been occupied since 
1929. In the room is a box containing a creature from 
another planet. 
Writer: Joseph Stefano 
Director: Gerd Oswald 

Cast: Miriam Hopkins (Mrs. Kry), Melinda Plowman 
(Vivia), Buck Taylor (Gard Hayden), Russell Collins 
(Justice of the Peace), David Frankham (Harvey Kry), 
John Hoyt (Vivia 's father). 

Z-Z-Z-Z-Z (1/27/64) 

A queen bee assumes human form to lure entomologist 

Ben Fields into her strange world— as a human drone. 

Writer: Meyer Dolinsky 

Director: John Brahm 

Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Phillip Abbott (Ben Fields), Joanna Frank (Queen 

Bee/Regina) Marsha Hunt (Mrs. Fields), Booth Coleman. 

THE INVISIBLES (2/3/64) 

A government intelligence agent infiltrates a strange 

society known as the "Invisible," which hopes to conquer 

mankind by attaching parasitic creatures to the spinal 

cords of human beings. 

Writer: Joseph Stefano 

Director: Gerd Oswald 

Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Don Gordon (Luis Spain), George Macready 

(Strategist), Tony Mordente (Planetta), Walter Burke, 

Neil Hamilton. 

THE BELLERO SHIELD (2/10/64) 

A scientist accidentally captures a space creature that 
protects itself with an indestructible and invisible shield. 
Writer: Joseph Stefano 
Director: Gerd Oswald 
Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Martin Landau (Richard Bellero, Jr.), Sally Keller- 
man (Judith Bellero), Chita Rivera (Mrs. Day), John Hoyt 
(space creature), Neil Hamilton (Bellero, Sr.). 



This creature lives in a box. but be 
advised, "Don't Open Till Doomsday." 



An alien father reclaims his Earth offspring 
one-by-one in "Children of Spider County." 





An amusement park joy ride turns out to be 
the real thing in the episode "A Second Chance." 



Warren Oates played a scientist exposed to a 
deadly, unearthly rain in "The Mutant." 



CHILDREN OF SPIDER COUNTY (2/17/64) 

Fifce geniuses of strangely similar backgrounds vanish. 

Their father, an alien from a distant world, returns to 

claim them. 

Writer: Anthony Lawrence 

Director: Leonard Horn 

Cinematographer: Kenneth Peach 

Cast: Lee Kinsolving (Ethan Wechsler), Kent Smith 

(Abel), Burt Douglas. Dabbs Greer, Joey Tata, John 

Milford, Robert Osterloh. 

SPECIMEN: UNKNOWN (2/24/64) 

Space station crewmen encounter mushroom-like 
organisms that emit a lethal gas and multiply with as- 
tounding rapidity. 
Writer: Stephan Lord 
Director: Gerd Oswald 
Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Stephen McNally (Col. MacWilliams), Russell 
Johnson (Capt. Mike Doweling). Art Batanides (Lt. Ken- 
neth Gavin), Richard Jaeckel. 

SECOND CHANCE (a/k/a JOY RIDE) 

(3/2/64) 

A group of people board an amusement park spaceship 

ride and then discover it's the real thing commandeered 

by an alien captain. 

Writers: Lou Morheim and Lin Dane 

Director: Paul Stanley 

Cinematographer: Kenneth Peach 

Cast: Simon Oakland (Empyrian), Don Gordon (Dave 

Crowell), Janet DeGore, John McLiam, Angela Clarke. 

MOONSTONE (3/9/64) 

A staff of military and scientific personnel on the moon 

discovers a strange object that is round, smooth— and 

alive. 

Writer: William Bast (based on a story by Lou Morheim 

and Joseph Stefano) 

Director: Robert Flory 

Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: Ruth Roman (Diana), Alex Nicol (Stocker), Tim 

O'Conner. 



THE MUTANT (3/16/64) 

Caught in a strange silvery rain on another planet, scien- 
tist Reese Fowler mutates into a telepathic killer. 
Writer: Allan Baiter and Robert Mintz (from a story by 
Jerome B. Thomas) 
Director: Alan Crosland, Jr. 
Cinematographer: Kenneth Peach 

Cast: Warren Oates (Reese Fowler), Julie Betsy Jones 
Moreland (Julie Griffith), Walter Burke, Larry Pennell, 
Richard Deer. 

THE GUESTS (3/23/64) 

Drifter Wade Norton stumbles upon a strange house 

where time stands still— and whose occupants are captive 

guests of a weird and unearthly creature. 

Writer: Donald S. Sanford 

Director: Paul Stanley 

Cinematographer: Kenneth Peach 

Cast: Gloria Grahame (Florida Patton), Geoffrey Home 

(Wade Norton), Luana Anders (Tess), Neille Burt, 

Vaughn Taylor. 

FUN AND GAMES (3/30/64) 

The "fun and games" on the satellite Arena consist of pit- 
ting creatures from other worlds against one another, 
with the losers forfeiting the lives of all the inhabitants of 
their own planet. 

Writers: Robert Specht and Joseph Stefano 
Director: Gerd Oswald 
Cinematographer: Kenneth Peach 

Cast: Nick Adams (Mike Benson), Nancy Malone (Laura), 
Ray Kellogg, Bill Hart. Robert Johnson. 

THE SPECIAL ONE (4/6/64) 

An agent from the planet Xenon is tutoring brilliant 
Earth children for a special project . . . the conquest of 
Earth. 

Writer: Oliver Crawford 
Director: Gerd Oswald 
Cinematographer: Kenneth Peach 

Cast: Richard Ney (Mr. Zeno), Flip Mark (Kenny Ben- 
jamin), Macdonald Carey (Roy Benjamin), Marion Ross 
(Agnes). 

61 




Phyllis Love is examined in "A Feasibility Study." 



A FEASIBILITY STUDY (4/13/64) 

Six city blocks have been transported to another galaxy. 

Writer: Joseph Stefano 

Director: Byron Haskin 

Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: San Wanamaker (Dr. Simon Holm), Phyllis Love 

(Andrea Holm), Frank Puglia, Ben Wright, David 

Ospatoshu, Joyce Van Patton. 

PRODUCTION AND DECAY OF 
STRANGE PARTICLES (4/20/64) 

After a nuclear reactor goes out of control, a flood of 

radiation is released in the form of near-human creatures. 

Writer and director: Leslie Stevens 

Cinematographer: John Nickolaus 

Cast: George Macready (Marshall), Signe Hasso (Laurel), 

Allyson Ames (Arndis), Joseph Ruskin, John Duke, 

Leonard Nimoy. 

THE CHAMELEON (4/27/64) 

Intelligence agent Louis Mace disguises himself to in- 
filtrate a party of creatures from another planet. 
Writers: Robert Towne, Joseph Stefano, and Lou 
Morheim 

Director: Gerd Oswald 
Cinematographer: Kenneth Peach 

Cast: Robert Duvall (Louis Mace), Howard Caine (Cham- 
bers), Henry Brandon (General Crawford), Douglas Hen- 
derson, William O'Connell. 

THE FORMS OF THINGS UNKNOWN 

(5/4/64) 

An elusive and enigimatic madman has devised a machine 

that can "tilt' ' time and bring the dead back to life. 

Writer: Joseph Stefano 

Director: Gerd Oswald 

Cinematographer: Conrad Hall 

Cast: Vera Miles (Kassia Paine), Barbara Rush (Leonora 

Edmund), Scott Marlowe (Andre Pavan), Sir Cedric Hard- 

wicke (Colas), David McCallum (Tone Hobart). 

62 




Funny, he doesn't look like William Shatner. 
From the episode, "Cold Hands, Warm Heart. 



SOLDIER (9/19/74) 

A quirk in time lands an Earth soldier of the future back 

in our present time. 

Writer: Harlan Ellison 

Director: Gerd Oswald 

Cinematographer for all second season episodes: Kenneth 

Peach 

Cast: Lloyd Nolan (Kagan), Michael Ansara (Qarlo), Tim 

O'Conner (Tanner), Catherine McLeod (Abby), Jill Hill 

(Toni), Alan Jaffe (Enemy). 

COLD HANDS, WARM HEART (9/26/64) 

Astronaut Jeff Barton returns from a successful orbit 

around the scorching planet Venus— and finds that he 

can"t keep himself warm. 

Writers: Dan Ulman and Milton Krims 

Director: Charles Haas 

Cast: William Shatner (Jeff), Geraldine Brooks (Ann), 

Lloyd Gough (General Claiborne), Malachi Throne (Dr. 

Mike). 

BEHOLD, ECK! (10/3/64) 

By chance, eye-specialist James Stone fashions several 
pairs of glasses which enable the wearers to see a two- 
dimensional monster. 

Writer: John Mantley (from a story by William Cox) 
Director: Byron Haskins 

Cast: Peter Lind Hayes (Dr. James Stone), Joan Freeman 
(Elizabeth Dunn), Parley Baer (Dr. Bernard Stone), Jack 
Wilson (Sergeant Jackson). 

EXPANDING HUMAN (10/10/64) 

A university professor experiments with a drug that ex- 
pands human consciousness. 
Writer: Francis Cockrell 
Director: Gerd Oswald 

Cast: Skip Homeier (Roy Clinton), Keith Andes (Dr. Peter 
Wayne), James Doohan (Lt. Branch), Vaughn Taylor 
(Dean Flint). 

DEMON WITH A GLASS HAND (10/17/64) 

The last survivor on Earth is hunted by Alien soldiers 

from a distant future who have invaded the planet via a 

time mirror. 

Writer: Harlan Ellison 

Director: Byron Haskin 

Cast: Robert Culp (Trent), Arline Martel (Consuelo), 

Steve Harris (Breech), Abraham Sofaer (Arch), Rex 

Holman (Battle), Robert Hortier (Budge). 



CRY OF SILENCE (10/24/64) 

In a remote canyon, Andy and Karen Thorne are stalked 
by animated tumbleweeds possessed by an alien in- 
telligence. 

Writer: Louis Charbonneau 
Director: Charles Haas 

Cast: Eddie Albert (Andy Thorne), June Havoc (Karen 
Thorne), Arthur Hunnicut (Lamont). 

THE INVISIBLE ENEMY (10/31/64) 

An expedition to Mars is menaced by a horde of horren- 
dous monsters who dwell in a sea of sand. 
Writer: Jerry Sohl 
Director: Byron Haskin 

Cast: Adam West (Merritt), Rudy Solari (Buckley), Joe 
Maross (General Winston), Chris Alcaide (Col. Dan vers). 

WOLF 359 (11/7/64) 

A professor reproduces a distant planet in miniature and 

watches evolution take place in a speeded-up fasion. 

Writer: Seeleg Lester and Richard Landau 

Director: Laslo Benedek 

Cast: Patrick O'Neal, Sara Shane (Ethel Wragg), Peter 

Haskell (Peter Jellicoe), Ben Wright (Philip Exeter 

Dundee). 

I, ROBOT (11/14/64) 

An almost-human robot is put on trial for murdering his 

creator. 

Writer: Otto Binder 

Director: Leon Benson 

Cast: Red Morgan (Adam the Robot), Howard Da Silva 

(Cutler), Marianna Hill (Nina), Hugh Sanders (Barclay), 

John HoyMProf. Hebbel). 

THE INHERITORS (Part One) (11/21/64) 

After a meteor crashes in the Hui Tan Provence, hand- 
made bullets molded from its ore find their way to battle. 
Four soldiers are struck down with the bullets— creating 
a powerful alien intelligence; a "second brain" in the head 
of each man that elevates their IQs to genius level. 
Writers: Sam Newman, Seeleg Lester, and Ed Adamson 
Director: James Goldstone 

Cast: Robert Duvall (Ballard), Steve Ihnat (Lt. Minns), 
Ivan Dixon (Conover), Dee Pollock (Hadley), James 
Frawley (Renaldo), Ted DeCorsica (Branch), Donald Har- 
ran (Harris), Dabbs Greer (Larkin). 

THE INHERITORS (Part Two) (11/28/64) 

(Credits— the same as Part One) 

Four soldiers, turned into scientific geniuses as the result 

of gunshot wounds from four identical bullets, are 

engaged in a mysterious project involving a number of 

children. 





KEEPER OF THE PURPLE TWILIGHT 

(12/5/64) 

An alien scientist (Ikar), makes a deal to exchange his in- 
tellect for an Earth scientist's emotions. Complications 
arise when he falls in love with the Earthman's wife. 
Writer: Milton Krims 
Director: Charles Haas 

Cast: Warren Stevens (Eric), Robert Webber (Ikar), Gail 
Kobe (Janet), Curt Conway (Franklin Karlin), Edward C. 
Piatt (David Hunt). 

THE DUPLICATE MAN (12/19/64) 

To recapture a murderous space creature, twenty-first 
century space anthropologist Henderson James creates a 
duplicate of himself. 

Writer: Robert Dennis (from a story by Clifford Simak) 
Director: Gerd Oswald 

Cast: Ron Randell (Henderson James I and II), .Con- 
stance Towers (Laura James), Mike Lane (the Megasoid), 
Sean McClory (Emmet). 

COUNTERWEIGHT (12/26/64) 

Six ordinary people and an extraordinary patch of light 
board a simulated flight to another planet which turns 
out to be real 
Writer: Milton Krims 
Director: Paul Stanley 

Cast: Michael Constantime (Dix), Jacqueline scott 
(Alicia), Graham Denton (Dr. James), Shary Marshall 
(Maggie O'Hara). 

THE BRAIN OF COLONEL BARHAM 

(1/2/65) 

Scientist decide that the ideal instrument for space ex- 
ploration would be a computer activated by a human 
brain. 

Writer: Robert C. Dennis 
Director: Charles Haas 

Cast: Grant Williams (McKinnon), Anthony Eisely (Col. 
Barham), Elizabeth Perry (Jennifer Barham). 

THE PREMONITION (1/9/65) 

Test pilot Jim Darcy and his wife are both saved from a 

sudden death by an equally sudden suspension of time. 

Writer: Sam Rocca and lb Melchoir 

Director: Gerd Oswald 

Cast: Dewey Martin (Jim Darcy), Mary Murphy (Linda 

Darcy), Emma Tyson (Jane Darcy), William Bramley 

(Baldy Baldwin). 

THE PROBE (1/23/65) 

The survivors of a Pacific plane crash find themselves sit- 
ting motionless on a seemingly solid sea. 
Writer: Seeleg Lester (from a story by Sam Neuman) 
Director: Felix Feist 

Cast: Mark Richman (Jefferson Rome), Peggy Ann 
Garner (Amanda Rome), Ron Hayes (Coberly). Janos Pro- 
haska (the "Mikie"). 



Far left: How would you adjust to finding your 
mind in an alien body? Even if it meant you 
were "Keeper of the Purple Twilight?" 

Left: A simulated interplanetary trip turns 
into a nightmare for those who unfortunately 
become involved in the episode "Counterweight. 



cumro uTOtmroi 



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Above: Bruce Dern tends to his robot drones on one 
of the orbiting greenhouses in Universal Pictures' 
Silent Running. The greenhouses contained the last 
of the earth's flora, and when the order came to 
destroy it all, Dern rebelled and sent the stations 
out of orbit into deep space. To alleviate his lon- 
liness and boredom, Dern programmed the various ro- 
bots to play poker and pool with him. Like Robbie 
in Forbidden Planet, they nearly stole the show. 



Left: Lear-Siegler's Mailmobile is a self-propelled, 
automatically guided vehicle which travels at 1.5 
feet per second and is programmed to stop immediate- 
ly if it encounters any obstacle. It can function 
as messenger, delivery wagon, and movable bulletin 
board, making its rounds along an invisible path 
with a maximum load of five hundred pounds of mail 
and office supplies. Though limited in its practi- 
cal uses to offices with considerable floor space, 
the Mailmobile certainly fits the definition of "an 
apparatus that performs certain actions by respond- 
int to preset controls or encoded instructions." 



Right: And speaking of Robbie, he seems to be indi- 
cating here that all should "Live Long and Prosper." 



ROBOTS: FACT AND FANCY 



Ever since Karel Capek invented the word "robot" 
in his play R. U.R. (short for Rossums's Universal 
Robots) in 1921, the idea of a machine that can think, 
talk, and do our work for us had driven not only science 
fiction writers but scientists as well. How far are we 
from Robbie's birth?According to Forbidden Planet, 
Robbie won't make his entrance for some three hundred 
years or so. But we shouldn't have to wait quite that 
long. 

The fact is that robots already exist. They are 
technically called automatons— according to Webster's: 
"an apparatus that automatically performs certain 
actions by responding to preset controls or encoded 
instructions." This variety of robot can perform some 
of the less intellectually demanding jobs that people 
have been doing on assembly lines, and under the 
proper circumstances, the robot's efficiency and 
accuracy can surpass that of a human. So far, however, 
that is about the extent of a modern robot's capability. 

Research is presently divided between the more 
mundane industrial applications (assembly work, 
tightening bolts, and quality tests, etc.) and the more 
spectacular work for the space program and medical 
research. By now, almost everyone knows that word 
"bionics." The opposite of the bionic person is the robot 
that is an independent entity capable of making its own 
decisions based on available data— often incomplete 
data. For example, if a human sees a tree falling in the 




woods, then turns away to some other stimulus, that 
person will quickly turn back around if he does not hear 
the tree hit the ground. In other words, humans can 
react to an absence of information as strongly as to a 
direct stimulus. How does one program a robot to 
process information that isn't there? 

NASA is working on that very problem at the Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory in California. Due to the twelve 
minute roundtrip necessary for radio communications 
with a Mars lander, NASA needs a machine capable of 
making survival decisions on its own without wasting 
time calling Earth for instructions. Scientists are 
putting together a preliminary "breadboard" robot 
using two TV cameras, a laser range finder, and a five- 
foot mechanical arm that may serve as a prototype for 
such a lander in the mid-eighties. The hope is that they 
can also come up with a machine capable of designing 
and carrying out its own programs. If everything goes 
according to schedule, the prototype should be ready 
for mounting on a chassis for mobility tests this 
winter. One interesting sidelight to this program is 
that, to save time and to speed development, the 
technicians are assuming great advances in computer 
miniaturization by the mid-eighties and are using 
larger, more complex computers than are presently 
feasible for use in such a robot. 

Robot researchers tend to be very cautious about 
predicting the beginning of the Age of Robots. Various 
estimates, from the year 2000 for an "intelligent" robot 
to flat statements that a Robbie-type robot will never 
exist, tend to make one overlook the fact that many 
scientists twenty-five years ago were predicting the 
turn of the century for a landing on the moon. The next 
twenty-five years may surprise us. -^ 




Above: Talk about a poker face! Wonder why Dern 
is the only one sweating out this hot game of stud? 




PRODUCED BY: Eddie Kramer